Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 11, pp. 2242−2247.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
V.A. Gubanov, V.V. Berenblit, 2009, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2009, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 249−254.
Studies and Developments of Lebedev Institute of Synthetic
Rubber in the Field of New Fluoroelastomers
V. A. Gubanov and V. V. Berenblit
Federal State Unitary Enterpriese “S.V. Lebedev Institute of Synthetic Rubber” (NIISK)
Received 15 March, 2009
XX Century beginning was marked by structure
identiﬁ cation of one of the natural polymers, poly-2-
methylbutadiene, natural rubber, whose monomer was
named as isoprene, and also by search for synthesis
approaches to this elastic polymer or its analogs. In
our country academician S.V. Lebedev in the 1930s
developed bases and created the production of synthetic
rubber, polybutadiene. In the 1940s S.V. Lebedev
All-Union Scientiﬁ c Research Institute of Synthetic
Rubber (VNIISK) has been founded. Presently it is the
internationally acknowledged largest scientiﬁ c center
of fundamental and applied researches in the ﬁ eld of
synthetic rubbers and latexes.
This time was also marked by appearance and
powerful development of ﬂ uoroorganic compounds
chemistry, development of such synthetic polymers
production as polyfluoroethylene resins, fluorine-
containing elastomers, ﬂ ourinated oils and lubricants,
which have no analogs in nature by both structure and
properties, but which are necessary for realization of
some atomic projects.
In Russia studies in the ﬁ eld of ﬂ uorine-containing
elastomers were initiated by I.M. Dolgopolskii in
VNIISK (All-Union Scientiﬁ c Research Institute of
Synthetic Rubber) approximately 60 years ago, starting
with development of synthesis method and production
technology of polyfluoroprene. It was obtained
by emulsion polymerization of 2-fluorobutadiene,
whose synthesis by ﬂ uorination of divinylacetylene
with anhydrous hydrogen ﬂ uoride was developed in
the laboratory by B.A. Byzov and mastered in the
experimental plant by V.Z. Ryzhinskii. However, this
first fluorine-containing elastomer containing one
fluorine atom in monomer unit could not compete
with the industrially produced numerous brands of
polychloroprene, Nairit. At the same time on its basis
A.L. Klebanskii has begun research and developments
of the synthesis of methyltriﬂ uoropropyldichlorosilane
and ﬂ uorinesiloxane natural rubbers SKTFT.
In the 1950s studies of V.I. Rokityanskii, which
ensured an increase in the ﬂ uorine content in elastomer
chain, were directed toward development of conditions
for emulsion radical co-polymerization of vinylidene
ﬂ uoride (M-2) with triﬂ uorochloroethylene (M-3) and
hexaﬂ uorinepropene (M-6). These studies became the
basis for developing of production technology of Soviet
ﬂ uorine-containing elastomers SKF-32 and SKF-26,
analogs of American Kel-F® and Viton®.
In the middle 1950s one of the priority directions of
investigation of VNIISK were researches connected with
synthesis of ﬂ uorine-containing elastomers of the next
generation, which combined the undoubted advantages
of the ﬁ rst ﬂ uorine polymers, their resistance to thermal
aggressivity and the frost resistance. The latter was
improved in comparison with SKF-32 and SKF-26 and
claimed by climatic features of the main territories of
our country as well as by an aerospace industry.
I.M. Dolgopolskii showed that use of heptaﬂ uoro-
3-metoxypropylacrylate for co-polymerization with
vinylidene ﬂ uoride leads to reduction in vitriﬁ cation
temperature at least to 20°C . However, the presence
of the non-ﬂ uorine-containing acrylate fragment in the
chain did not provide sufﬁ cient resistance of natural
rubbers to aggressivity.