Structure and Function of Sodium-coupled GABA and Glutamate Transporters

Structure and Function of Sodium-coupled GABA and Glutamate Transporters Neurotransmitter transporters are key elements in the termination of the synaptic actions of the neurotransmitters. They use the energy stored in the electrochemical ion gradients across the plasma membrane of neurons and glial cells for uphill transport of the transmitters into the cells surrounding the synapse. Therefore specific transporter inhibitors can potentially be used as novel drugs for neurological disease. Sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters belong to either of two distinct families. The glutamate transporters belong to the SLC1 family, whereas the transporters of the other neurotransmitters belong to the SLC6 family. An exciting and recent development is the emergence of the first high-resolution structures of archeal and bacterial members belonging to these two families. In this review the functional results on prototypes of the two families, the GABA transporter GAT-1 and the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and EAAC1, are described and discussed within the perspective provided by the novel structures. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

Structure and Function of Sodium-coupled GABA and Glutamate Transporters

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Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Human Physiology
ISSN
0022-2631
eISSN
1432-1424
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00232-006-0877-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Neurotransmitter transporters are key elements in the termination of the synaptic actions of the neurotransmitters. They use the energy stored in the electrochemical ion gradients across the plasma membrane of neurons and glial cells for uphill transport of the transmitters into the cells surrounding the synapse. Therefore specific transporter inhibitors can potentially be used as novel drugs for neurological disease. Sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters belong to either of two distinct families. The glutamate transporters belong to the SLC1 family, whereas the transporters of the other neurotransmitters belong to the SLC6 family. An exciting and recent development is the emergence of the first high-resolution structures of archeal and bacterial members belonging to these two families. In this review the functional results on prototypes of the two families, the GABA transporter GAT-1 and the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and EAAC1, are described and discussed within the perspective provided by the novel structures.

Journal

The Journal of Membrane BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Apr 6, 2007

References

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