Structure and evolution of the gorilla and orangutan growth hormone loci

Structure and evolution of the gorilla and orangutan growth hormone loci In primates, the unigenic growth hormone (GH) locus of prosimians expressed primarily in the anterior pituitary, evolved by gene duplications, independently in New World Monkeys (NWM) and Old World Monkeys (OWMs)/apes, to give complex clusters of genes expressed in the pituitary and placenta. In human and chimpanzee, the GH locus comprises five genes, GH-N being expressed as pituitary GH, whereas GH-V (placental GH) and CSHs (chorionic somatomammotropins) are expressed (in human and probably chimpanzee) in the placenta; the CSHs comprise CSH-A, CSH-B and the aberrant CSH-L (possibly a pseudogene) in human, and CSH-A1, CSH-A2 and CSH-B in chimpanzee. Here, the GH locus in two additional great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and orangutan (Pongo abelii), is shown to contain six and four GH-like genes, respectively. The gorilla locus possesses six potentially expressed genes, gGH-N, gGH-V and four gCSHs, whereas the orangutan locus has just three functional genes, oGH-N, oGH-V and oCSH-B, plus a pseudogene, oCSH-L. Analysis of regulatory sequences, including promoter, enhancer and P-elements, shows significant variation; in particular the proximal Pit-1 element of GH-V genes differs markedly from that of other genes in the cluster. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the initial gene duplication led to distinct GH-like and CSH-like genes and that a second duplication provided separate GH-N and GH-V. However, evolution of the CSH-like genes remains unclear. Rapid adaptive evolution gave rise to the distinct CSHs, after the first duplication, and to GH-V after the second duplication. Analysis of transcriptomic databases derived from gorilla tissues establishes that the gGH-N, gGH-V and several gCSH genes are expressed, but the significance of the many CSH genes in gorilla remains unclear. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Structure and evolution of the gorilla and orangutan growth hormone loci

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Cell Biology; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Human Genetics
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00335-016-9654-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In primates, the unigenic growth hormone (GH) locus of prosimians expressed primarily in the anterior pituitary, evolved by gene duplications, independently in New World Monkeys (NWM) and Old World Monkeys (OWMs)/apes, to give complex clusters of genes expressed in the pituitary and placenta. In human and chimpanzee, the GH locus comprises five genes, GH-N being expressed as pituitary GH, whereas GH-V (placental GH) and CSHs (chorionic somatomammotropins) are expressed (in human and probably chimpanzee) in the placenta; the CSHs comprise CSH-A, CSH-B and the aberrant CSH-L (possibly a pseudogene) in human, and CSH-A1, CSH-A2 and CSH-B in chimpanzee. Here, the GH locus in two additional great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and orangutan (Pongo abelii), is shown to contain six and four GH-like genes, respectively. The gorilla locus possesses six potentially expressed genes, gGH-N, gGH-V and four gCSHs, whereas the orangutan locus has just three functional genes, oGH-N, oGH-V and oCSH-B, plus a pseudogene, oCSH-L. Analysis of regulatory sequences, including promoter, enhancer and P-elements, shows significant variation; in particular the proximal Pit-1 element of GH-V genes differs markedly from that of other genes in the cluster. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the initial gene duplication led to distinct GH-like and CSH-like genes and that a second duplication provided separate GH-N and GH-V. However, evolution of the CSH-like genes remains unclear. Rapid adaptive evolution gave rise to the distinct CSHs, after the first duplication, and to GH-V after the second duplication. Analysis of transcriptomic databases derived from gorilla tissues establishes that the gGH-N, gGH-V and several gCSH genes are expressed, but the significance of the many CSH genes in gorilla remains unclear.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Jul 4, 2016

References

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