Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 5, pp. 779−782.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
T.F. Grigor’eva, A.I. Ancharov, A.P. Barinova, S.V. Tsybulya, N.Z. Lyakhov, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82,
No. 5, pp. 727−730.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Structural Transformations in Mechanochemical Synthesis
of Solid Solutions in the Cu–Ga System
T. F. Grigor’eva
, A. I. Ancharov
, A. P. Barinova
, S. V. Tsybulya
and N. Z. Lyakhov
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Received March 20, 2008
Abstract—Formation of solid solutions in the copper–gallium system under mechanical activation is considered
as an example of a mechanochemical interaction between a solid metal and a liquid metal.
Analysis of published data shows that there are almost
no reports devoted to the mechanochemical interaction
of a solid metal and a liquid one. However, previous
studies of the mechanochemical interaction in the Cu–Hg
system have shown that the mechanochemical synthesis
in systems of this kind is exceedingly efﬁ cient: this is
indicated by the high rates of mechanochemical reactions
difﬁ cultly performable in the solid state mode, synthesis
of supersaturated solid solutions possessing a high excess
free energy, and a number of other speciﬁ c features
characteristic of the mechanochemical interaction in this
It is known that liquid metals are the most effective
surfactants with respect to solid metals and the dispersion
of solid metals in the presence of those in the liquid state
is markedly facilitated .
The good wettability of a solid metal by a liquid one
provides a large area of the contact surface between
the reagents. At a sufﬁ cient amount of the solid phase,
almost the entire surface of the solid-phase component
is involved in the contact, whereas in interaction of solid
phase, the contact surface area constitutes 10–5–10–4 of
the total area .
The aim of the study was to examine the mechano-
chemical interaction in the system constituted by solid
copper and liquid gallium at a small content of the liquid
phase (concentration range of solid solutions).
The mechanochemical synthesis in the copper–gallium
system from powdered copper PMS-1 and gallium [GOST
(State Standard) 12797–77] was performed in an AGO-
2 high-energy water-cooled planetary ball mill in the
atmosphere of argon (drum volume 250 cm
, ball diameter
5 mm, charge 200 g, weighed portion of a sample being
treated 10 g, revolution rate of drums about the common
axis ~1000 rpm).
An X-ray phase analysis was made using a URD-63
diffractometer equipped with a graphite monochromator
The X-ray diffraction studies were carried out in situ
by the method in which a pencil beam (0.4 × 0.4 mm)
of monochromatic radiation (λ = 0.3686 Å) is passed
through a thin layer of a sample and yields a diffraction
pattern recorded by a planar 2D detector. In the case in
The study was carried out at a station of the 4th synchrotron
radiation beamline of VEPP-3 storage ring at the Siberian center of
synchrotron radiation, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences.