1067-4136/05/3604- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2005, pp. 259–265. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 4, 2005, pp. 286–293.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Eremeeva, Sushchev.
Pollinating insects, particularly bumblebees and
butterﬂies, are important for the maintenance of normal
functioning and species diversity of urban phyto-
cenoses and for the improvement of plant productivity.
The adaptive potential of pollinators in the urban envi-
ronment is poorly known, and available data are contra-
dictory. Many authors have noted a low species diver-
sity and reduced abundance of butterﬂies and true bees
in cities (Bogatyrev, 1985; Sergeev and Dubatolov,
1988; Efremova, 1988; Martynenko, 1994; Mel’tser
and Soromotin, 1998; Komarov and Filimonova, 2000).
This is explained by both the direct impact of urban fac-
tors (e.g., pollution and physical extermination of
insects and their nests) and indirect effects (unstable
food supply due to grass cutting, trampling, habitat
alteration, etc.). According to other data concerning
mainly true bees (Sapaev, 1989; Lykov, 1995), pollinat-
ing insects in some cities do not suffer from chemical
pollution to such an extent as in zones of intensive agri-
culture. Moreover, they can ﬁnd new ecological niches
in dry and warm places (roadsides, embankments for
power lines, etc.); are well supplied with food plants,
including many additional (garden, decorative, or intro-
duced) species; and have enough places for nesting.
These factors lead to an increase in their species diver-
sity, mainly by attracting more southern species, which,
together with aboriginal species, comprise complex
The purpose of this work was to study the species
diversity, abundance, and some ecological features of
pollinating insects in different cenoses of a large indus-
trial center and, on this basis, to analyze the structure of
their communities and estimate the adaptive potential
of bumblebees (Hymenoptera) and butterﬂies (Lepi-
STUDY AREA, MATERIAL, AND METHODS
Insects were collected from 1995 to 2003 within the
Kemerovo city limits, in its vicinities, and in the control
zone in plots chosen with regard to the direction of pre-
vailing winds and the levels of industrial pollution and
(the industrial zone) is in Zavodskoi district,
in the western (industrial) part of the city, where the
main sources of air pollution (coal chemical, power,
and machine-building industries) are located. The
urban cenosis is represented by herb–grass meadows and
poplar, maple, and birch plantations. The plot is heavily
littered, and some areas are devoid of vegetation.
(the city center)
(pine forest) are
located 5 km southeast and east of the industrial zone,
respectively. Both habitats are “ecological inlets,” i.e.,
areas with elements of natural vegetation within the
urban landscape. Plot 2 is an herb–grass meadow with
conserved fragments of natural phytocenoses (willow
coppice). Plot 3 is a herbaceous pine forest with the
prevalence of nettle and goutweed (
) in the
ground vegetation layer.
The above three plots are separated from each other
and from the suburbs either by multistory buildings or
by industrial areas.
(the suburbs), located 10 km southeast of the
city, is under herb–grass meadows with isolated clus-
ters of birch trees.
(the control plot) is 30 km northwest of the
city (on the windward side). It contains biotopes similar
to urban and suburban herb–grass meadows, birch for-
est islands, and fragments of pine forest.
Each plot is more than 100 ha in area, with private
houses and cultivated or abandoned gardens.
The degree of industrial pollution in the plots was esti-
mated by a phytoindication method (Neverova, 2001).
Structural Changes in the Fauna of Pollinating Insects
in Urban Landscapes
N. I. Eremeeva and D. V. Sushchev
Kemerovo State University, ul. Krasnaya 6, Kemerovo, 650043 Russia
Received March 17, 2004
—Species composition, abundance, and some ecological features of pollinating insects have been
studied in urbanized landscapes. Changes in the composition of bumblebees (Hymenoptera) and butterﬂies
(Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) and their adaptive potential in urban environments are considered.
: insect ecology, urban ecosystems, adaptations, pollinating insects, bumblebees, Rhopalocera, abun-
dance, species composition.