Photosynthesis in tissues under periderm of woody stems and shoots of perennial plants occurs in environment that is very different from the internal environment of leaf chloroplasts. These tissues are characterized by high CO2 and low O2 concentrations, more acidic surroundings, besides that only light which have passed through periderm reaches photosynthetic antennas. In contrast to leaves of deciduous plants chlorenchyma tissues of wintering plant organs are exposed to temperature fluctuations during all seasons, that is why the photosynthetic apparatus of woody stems has to be able to adapt to a wide range of environmental temperatures. In order to reveal unique features, which enable photosynthetic apparatus of chlorenchyma cells in woody plant organs to implement biological functions under different light and temperature conditions, we studied photosynthetic tissues of stem cortex in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) under normal conditions and after exposure to suboptimal temperatures and high light intensity. Comparative analysis of photosynthetic pigment composition and low-temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectrum of leaves, young shoots and chlorenchyma of lignified shoots revealed relatively high level of chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and high photosystem II (PSII) to photosystem I (PSI) ratio in woody shoots. Analysis of parameters of variable chlorophyll fluorescence revealed high PSII activity in grapevine shoot cortex and demonstrated improved freeze tolerance and higher sensitivity to light of photosynthetic apparatus in grape vine in comparison to leaves. It was shown for the first time that photosynthetic apparatus in chlorenchyma cells of vine undergoes so-called “state-transition”–fast rearrangements leading to redistribution of energy between photosystems. Analysis of fatty acid (FA) compositions of lipids in examined tissues showed that the FA unsaturation index in green tissue of vine is lower than in leaves. A distinct feature of FA compositions of lipids in vine cortex was relatively high level of linoleic acid.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 23, 2017
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