Structural analyses of plastid-derived 16S rRNAs in holoparasitic angiosperms

Structural analyses of plastid-derived 16S rRNAs in holoparasitic angiosperms Higher-order structures have been constructed for plastid-encoded small-subunit (SSU, 16S), rRNAs from representatives of seven nonphotosynthetic holoparasitic angiosperm families: Apodanthaceae, Cynomoriaceae, Cytinaceae, Balanophoraceae, Hydnoraceae, Mitrastemonaceae, and Rafflesiaceae. Whereas most pairwise comparisons among angiosperms differ by 2–3% in substitutions, the 16S rRNAs of the holoparasites show an increasingly greater number of mutations: Cynomorium (7.3%), Cytinus (8.0%), Bdallophyton (12.7%), Mitrastema (14.9%), Hydnora (19.4%), Pilostyles (30.4%) and Corynaea (35.9%). Despite this high level of sequence variation, SSU structures constructed for all species except Pilostyles possess the typical complement of 50 helices (that contain numerous compensatory mutations) thereby providing indirect evidence supporting their functionality. Pilostyles, likely with the most unusual plastid 16S rRNA yet documented, lacks four major helices and contains lengthy insertions for four others. Sequences of products generated via RT-PCR show that these structural modifications are present on a mature (transcribed) rRNA. The trend toward increasing numbers of base substitutions in the holoparasites is accompanied by a marked increase in AA+U content of the rRNA. This ‘A/T drift’ phenomenon of rDNA is especially apparent in Corynaea whose SSU rDNA sequence is 72% A+T. A comparison of Cytinus to tobacco showed that substitution rates appear to be dependent upon the composition of neighboring bases. Transversions represented 26% of the mutations when flanking bases were G or C whereas transversions increased to 36% when the flanking bases were A to T. The underlying molecular mechanism associated with these high substitution rates is presently unknown, however, relaxation of selection pressure on ribosome function resulting in altered DNA replication and/or repair systems may be involved. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

Structural analyses of plastid-derived 16S rRNAs in holoparasitic angiosperms

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/structural-analyses-of-plastid-derived-16s-rrnas-in-holoparasitic-FuZH0On6EG
Publisher
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Sciences; Plant Pathology
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1023/A:1005808615763
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Higher-order structures have been constructed for plastid-encoded small-subunit (SSU, 16S), rRNAs from representatives of seven nonphotosynthetic holoparasitic angiosperm families: Apodanthaceae, Cynomoriaceae, Cytinaceae, Balanophoraceae, Hydnoraceae, Mitrastemonaceae, and Rafflesiaceae. Whereas most pairwise comparisons among angiosperms differ by 2–3% in substitutions, the 16S rRNAs of the holoparasites show an increasingly greater number of mutations: Cynomorium (7.3%), Cytinus (8.0%), Bdallophyton (12.7%), Mitrastema (14.9%), Hydnora (19.4%), Pilostyles (30.4%) and Corynaea (35.9%). Despite this high level of sequence variation, SSU structures constructed for all species except Pilostyles possess the typical complement of 50 helices (that contain numerous compensatory mutations) thereby providing indirect evidence supporting their functionality. Pilostyles, likely with the most unusual plastid 16S rRNA yet documented, lacks four major helices and contains lengthy insertions for four others. Sequences of products generated via RT-PCR show that these structural modifications are present on a mature (transcribed) rRNA. The trend toward increasing numbers of base substitutions in the holoparasites is accompanied by a marked increase in AA+U content of the rRNA. This ‘A/T drift’ phenomenon of rDNA is especially apparent in Corynaea whose SSU rDNA sequence is 72% A+T. A comparison of Cytinus to tobacco showed that substitution rates appear to be dependent upon the composition of neighboring bases. Transversions represented 26% of the mutations when flanking bases were G or C whereas transversions increased to 36% when the flanking bases were A to T. The underlying molecular mechanism associated with these high substitution rates is presently unknown, however, relaxation of selection pressure on ribosome function resulting in altered DNA replication and/or repair systems may be involved.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Sep 29, 2004

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve Freelancer

DeepDyve Pro

Price
FREE
$49/month

$360/year
Save searches from Google Scholar, PubMed
Create lists to organize your research
Export lists, citations
Access to DeepDyve database
Abstract access only
Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles
Print
20 pages/month
PDF Discount
20% off