Higher-order structures have been constructed for plastid-encoded small-subunit (SSU, 16S), rRNAs from representatives of seven nonphotosynthetic holoparasitic angiosperm families: Apodanthaceae, Cynomoriaceae, Cytinaceae, Balanophoraceae, Hydnoraceae, Mitrastemonaceae, and Rafflesiaceae. Whereas most pairwise comparisons among angiosperms differ by 2–3% in substitutions, the 16S rRNAs of the holoparasites show an increasingly greater number of mutations: Cynomorium (7.3%), Cytinus (8.0%), Bdallophyton (12.7%), Mitrastema (14.9%), Hydnora (19.4%), Pilostyles (30.4%) and Corynaea (35.9%). Despite this high level of sequence variation, SSU structures constructed for all species except Pilostyles possess the typical complement of 50 helices (that contain numerous compensatory mutations) thereby providing indirect evidence supporting their functionality. Pilostyles, likely with the most unusual plastid 16S rRNA yet documented, lacks four major helices and contains lengthy insertions for four others. Sequences of products generated via RT-PCR show that these structural modifications are present on a mature (transcribed) rRNA. The trend toward increasing numbers of base substitutions in the holoparasites is accompanied by a marked increase in AA+U content of the rRNA. This ‘A/T drift’ phenomenon of rDNA is especially apparent in Corynaea whose SSU rDNA sequence is 72% A+T. A comparison of Cytinus to tobacco showed that substitution rates appear to be dependent upon the composition of neighboring bases. Transversions represented 26% of the mutations when flanking bases were G or C whereas transversions increased to 36% when the flanking bases were A to T. The underlying molecular mechanism associated with these high substitution rates is presently unknown, however, relaxation of selection pressure on ribosome function resulting in altered DNA replication and/or repair systems may be involved.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2004
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