The non-reacting flow field within the combustion chamber of a motored direct-injection spark-ignition engine with tumble intake port is measured. The three-dimensionality of the flow necessitates the measurement of all three velocity components via stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry in multiple planes. Phase-locked stereoscopic PIV is applied at 15 crank angles during the intake and compression strokes, showing the temporal evolution of the flow field. The flow fields are obtained within a set of 14 axial planes, covering nearly the complete cylinder volume. The stereoscopic PIV setup applied to engine in-cylinder flow and the arising problems and solutions are discussed in detail. The three-dimensional flow field is reconstructed and analyzed using vortex criteria. The tumble vortex is the dominant flow structure, and this vortex varies significantly regarding shape, strength, and position throughout the two strokes. The tumble vortex center moves clockwise through the combustion chamber. At first, the tumble has a c-shape which turns into an almost straight tube at the end of the compression. Small-scale structures are analyzed by the distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy. It is evident that the symmetry plane only represents the 3D flow field after 100 CAD. For earlier crank angles, both kinetic energy (KE) and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the combustion chamber are well below the KE and TKE in the symmetry plane. This should be taken into account when the injection and breakup of the three-dimensional fuel jet are studied. The mean kinetic energy is conserved until late compression by the tumble motion. This conservation ensures through the excited air motion an enhancement of the initial air-fuel mixture which is of interest for direct-injection gasoline engines.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 23, 2012
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