STATE-OF-THE-ART PLANTS FOR DRYING
AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEATING OF LADLES
B. S. Chaikin,
G. E. Mar’yanchik,
E. M. Panov,
P. T. Shaposhnikov,
V. A. Vladimirov,
I. S. Volovik,
and B. A. Makarevich
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 10, pp. 21 – 25, October, 2006.
Original article submitted June 6, 2006.
The Stal’proekt Institute has developed state-of-the-art plants for drying and high-temperature heating of
steel-teeming ladles. Two new plants for drying tundish ladle lining have been designed for machine No. 6 for
continuous billet casting at the Oskol’skii Electrometallurgical Works. Plants for drying and heating 30-ton
teeming ladles to a temperature of 800°C and for high-temperature heating of ladle lining (1200°C) have been
designed for a currently constructed metallurgical works. All these plants recover flue gas heat and use it for
heating air supplied for combustion, thus decreasing the consumption of fuel. The process of drying and heat-
ing of lining is analyzed using a mathematical model developed at the institute. The plants are equipped with
automatic control systems controlling the temperature schedule of drying and heating the lining. The specified
plants ensure cost-effective operation in an automatic mode
The Stal’proekt Institute has designed state-of-the-art
plants for drying and high-temperature heating of teeming la-
dles. The use of flue gas heat, modern burners, and automa-
tion instruments provide for cost-effective and safe perfor-
mance of these plants in different operating modes.
The lining division of the electric steel-melting shop of
the Oskol’skii Electrometallurgical Works (OEMW) at the
moment has four plants for drying tundish ladles that cast
steel for machines for continuous billet casting Nos.1–5.In
connection with the construction of a new machine for con
tinuous billet casting (No. 6), two additional plants (Nos. 5
and 6) are required to dry the lining of tundish ladles pro
duced by Concast (Switzerland). The design of these drying
plants have been developed at the Stal’proekt Institute.
The new plants are located on two sides of the four exist
ing tundish-drying stands and use the existing fume duct to
deflect flue gases.
The main difficulties in designing were related to the ex
istence of a common flue gas duct for six plants, since it was
necessary to provide safe gas combustion, cost efficiency,
and compliance with preset lining-heating schedules for the
plants simultaneously operating in different working re
gimes. The fuel flow rate and the type of burners were cho
sen using a mathematical model developed at the institute,
which, in addition to heat analysis, also performs hydraulic
analysis of the gas system.
We have developed a mathematical model for calculating
the process of tundish ladle lining by gas burners in accor
dance with a preset drying schedule, taking into account that
air used for natural gas combustion is heated in the loop
recuperator using flue gases exiting from the tundish ladle.
In the mathematical sense, the model is based on a com
bined solution of a system of integral and nonstationary dif
ferential equation, describing the following thermophysical
processes occurring in the volume of the tundish ladle and in
— heat exchange by radiation between all inner surfaces
of the tundish ladle and the gaseous space inside the ladle,
taking into account the real ladle geometry and the absorbing
properties of the gaseous medium. The system of integral
equations of radiant heat exchange in an absorbing medium
was solved by the zonal method;
— heat transfer in the multilayer lining of the tundish la
dle. The differential nonstationary thermal conductivity
equations were solved by the flow sweep method. It is also
possible to specify the moisture percent in the lining and take
into account heat spent in evaporation in solving the thermal
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 5, 2006
1083-4877/06/4705-0283 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Stal’proekt Institute, Russia.