Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 713−717.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © A.D. Vorobiov, O.B. Dormeshkin, E.V. Vorobieva, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 766−770.
IN HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS
Stabilization of Cooling Water-Circulation Systems
with Organophosphorus Compounds
A. D. Vorobiov
, O. B. Dormeshkin
, and E. V. Vorobieva
Belarusian State Technological University, Minsk, Belarus
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Received March 27, 2013
Abstract—Effect of organophosphorus compounds on stability parameters of cooling water-circulation systems
was studied using a laboratory setup simulating sedimentation processes under dynamic conditions. It was found
that introduction of organophosphates reduces the sedimentation rate by a factor of 2.5–3.5 as compared with a
model system containing no inhibitors due to the activation of growth of the less stable polymorphic modiﬁ cation
of calcium carbonate.
The formation of mineral deposits in cooling water-
circulation systems is a serious problem for most of
industrial plants. Techniques for stabilizing treatment
of water have found wide application in recent years,
together with the development and installation of new
Water is frequently stabilized in cooling water-
circulation systems with phosphorus-containing
compounds inhibiting the nucleation and growth of
crystals and affecting the phase composition of calcium
carbonate, which is due to the interaction of phosphonate
groups with calcium and magnesium ions and to the
formation of stable complexes in solution and on the
surface of the carbonate deposit being formed [1, 2].
In contrast to inorganic phosphates, these compounds
can long retain their inhibiting properties, without
undergoing hydrolysis. It should, however, be taken into
account that phosphorus-containing compounds exert a
negative ecological inﬂ uence on the environment, and,
therefore, their content in cooling water-circulation
systems should be minimized.
The application of organic phosphates for controlling
the water-chemical operation mode of water-circulation
systems has been the subject of numerous publications
[3–5]. The organophosphate concentrations are
optimized by determining the content of the solid phase
of the carbonate deposit or measuring the residual
concentration of calcium, magnesium, and carbonate
ions in the supernatant ﬂ uid before and after introduction
of phosphonates. Methods are known for studies of
carbonate crystallization processes by high-precision
measurements of the pH value, conductivity, and optical
transmission of solutions [6, 7].
Recently, reports have appeared of new methods and
equipment that simulate formation of crystalline deposits
under conditions close to the dynamic conditions of
water-circulation systems [3, 8]. The new opportunities
are mostly used to empirically evaluate the efﬁ ciency
of various additives for stabilizing treatment of water.
However, little attention is being paid to the relationship
between the simulation results and operation parameters
of water-circulation systems and saturation indices.
Hardly any data can be found in the literature about the
mechanism by which the crystallization of carbonates
is changed upon introduction of additives under the
conditions in which the appearing crystals nucleate and
grow and the crystal structure of the deposit is formed
in a moving ﬂ ow.