STABILITY AND COURSE OF PERSONALITY
DISORDERS: THE NEED TO CONSIDER
COMORBIDITIES AND CONTINUITIES
BETWEEN AXIS I PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
AND AXIS II PERSONALITY DISORDERS
Carlos M. Grilo, Ph.D., Thomas H. McGlashan, M.D.,
and Andrew E. Skodol, M.D.
The literature pertaining to the stability and course of personality disorders is
brieﬂy reviewed. Available data suggest that PD diagnoses demonstrate only
moderate stability and that—although generally associated with a plethora of
negative outcomes—they can show improvement over time. This paper high-
lights the pervasiveness of diagnostic co-occurrence and its implications for con-
tinued investigation of the question of PD stability. In addition to examining the
stability (and outcome) of PDs, longitudinal studies need to consider continuities
between diagnoses. The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study
(CLPS) is described brieﬂy vis-a-vis some of these major issues.
STABILITY OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
The placement of personality disorder (PD) diagnoses on Axis II
of the multiaxial Diagnostic and Statistical Manual beginning
with the third edition in 1980 (DSM-III) (1) reﬂected, in part,
From the Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine (Drs.
Grilo and McGlashan) and Columbia University College of Physicians and Sur-
geons (Dr. Skodol).
Address correspondence to Carlos M. Grilo, Ph.D., Yale Psychiatric Research
at Congress Place, Yale University School of Medicine, 301 Cedar Street, P.O.
Box 208038, New Haven, CT 06520; e-mail: email@example.com.
PSYCHIATRIC QUARTERLY, Vol. 71, No. 4, Winter 2000
0033-2720/00/1200-0291$18.00/0 2000 Human Sciences Press, Inc.