ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 1267–1271. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2012.
Original Russian Text © A.I. Vidyakin, V.L. Semerikov, M.A. Polezhaeva, O.S. Dymshakova, 2012, published in Genetika, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 1440–1444.
Scots pine (
L., Pinaceae) occupies
extensive areal characterized by the polymorphism
and intraspecific variability of the populations. In
northeastern Russian Plain, the structure of the pine
population is a system of areal units formed as a result
of reproductive isolation, landscapegeographical dif
ferentiation, and migration from glacial pleistocene
refugia. Scots pine was absent during the cold period
of the Pleistocene. During the warm intervals it could
migrate from the South and Middle Urals, the Car
pathians, and adjacent regions that are likely to con
tained pine refugia. However, studies of the genetic
structure of pine within the boreal region of its areal by
allozyme markers revealed a very weak differentiation
of the populations. The genetic distances of Nei and Li
between populations of Scandinavia and North China
did not exceed 0.02 . The genetic distances of Nei
and Li were also less than 0.02 with low grade tendency
to differentiation of the populations of the east of the
Russian Plane and western regions .
Along with the traditional approach of the study of
the variability of forestforming pine species, such as
phenotypic and allozyme analyzes, the method of
analyzing cytoplasmic genetic markers have recently
become widespread. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
of the species of the Pinaceae family does not recom
bine. This mtDNA is passed through the maternal line
in a series of generations. Thus, the rate of genetic
variation is limited by typically low distance that seeds
cover with relation to the parent tree. As a result, the
population structure of mtDNA variability within pine
species remains conservative for the long term.
Previous investigations of foreign researchers have
identified a low level of polymorphism level within
introns and exons of mtDNA genes of Scots pine .
The variability of the marker fragment of the second
intron of the
mitochondrial gene allowed the
authors to distinguish the group of pine populations in
the peninsula . It turns out that, another high poly
morphic marker of several pine species (such as
), intron I of the
gene, contains no variable minisatellites in
; the polymorphism is due to the presence or
absence of deletions. An analysis of the variability of
this marker allowed us to identify additional polymor
phism in European populations [6, 7] and Russian
populations from the Voronezh, Orel, Novosibirsk,
and Kaluga regions, as well as the Republics of Tatar
stan and Karelia .
This work is aimed at identifying the variability of
mtDNA and the genetic differentiation of populations
of Scots pine within the Russian Plain and a compari
son of the results to data obtained by other authors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We have analyzed 15 sample collections that con
tain 21–24 species of Scots pine from the Kirov,
Arkhangelsk, Vologda, and Kostroma regions; Komi;
and Chuvashia (Table).
DNA isolation was performed using the CTAB
method . DNA was isolated from fresh pine nee
Spread of Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes in Population of Scots
L.) in Northern European Russia
A. I. Vidyakin
, V. L. Semerikov
, M. A. Polezhaeva
, and O. S. Dymshakova
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirov, 610035 Russia
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
Received April 26, 2012
—The variability of the first intron of the
gene of Scots pine mitochondrial DNA was investi
gated in 15 populations in northeast of European Russia and in three populations in Belarus, Sweden, and
the Voronezh region. Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism of the PCR product (PCRRFLP) and
sequencing were used. The investigated samples were compared with the populations studied previously [1, 2].
The haplotype, which is absolutely dominant in the eastern part of the Scots pine range [1, 2], was fixed in
the Kirov, Arkhangelsk, and Kostroma regions; Komi; and Chuvashia. The extreme northeastern discovery
of an alternative haplotype that is present in most European populations and occurs the most frequently in
eastern Scandinavia was made in the Vologda region. These results support the hypothesis that the population
of Scots pine in northeast Russia and Fennoscandia originated from different glacial refugia.