ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTIONS (S CHEN, SECTION EDITOR)
Sporotrichosis: Update on Diagnostic Techniques
Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy
Published online: 30 June 2017
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017
Purpose of Review Sporotrichosis, the disease caused by
Sporothrix spp, ranges from subcutaneous infections to the
severe disseminated or invasive diseases. The taxonomy of
Sporothrix has been revised. The subcutaneous disease is
suspected easily, but the extra-cutaneous disease is diagnosed
by chance or with high suspicion. This review provides the
overview of currently available diagnostic techniques.
Recent Finding Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA) or latex agglutination test with partially purified an-
tigens helps in the diagnosis of extra-cutaneous sporotrichosis.
Molecular methods have been used for the identification and
typing of the fungus. Calmodulin, beta tubulin, translation
elongation factor and chitin synthase genes are targeted for
species differentiation. MALDI-TOF MS has been standard-
ized to identify the species.
Summary PCR-based molecular techniques and matrix-assisted
laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectroscopy
(MALDI-TOF MS) help in the identification of Sporothrix spe-
cies, whereas ELISA helps in diagnosing extra-cutaneous form.
Utility of molecular techniques for detection of Sporothrix di-
rectly from clinical specimen needs to be evaluated.
Sporotrichosis, a disease with diverse group of clinical mani-
festations, is caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii
sensu lato. Cutaneous disease is the commonest presentation.
However, extra-cutaneous diseases with lung, bone and central
nervous system involvement are increasingly reported in recent
years [1•, 2]. Though the disease is described as endemic infec-
tion, it has been reported worldwide from United States, Brazil,
Columbia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru,India,China,Japanand
parts of Africa, Australia and Europe [1•]. The disease has
gained importance in recent years due to high prevalence in
Brazil as a zoonotic disease, distinctive epidemiology and rec-
ognition of many cryptic species. Human infection due to this
agent is usually acquired by the traumatic implantation of the
fungus across skin barrier from saprophytic source or by the
scratches or bites of infected animals especially cats in Latin
America . The exact prevalence of this disease in general
population is not known. In USA, 1471 sporotrichosis-
associated hospitalizationoccurredduring2000–2013 with an
average annual rate of 0.35/1 million population .
In recent years, the taxonomy of Sporothrix has changed con-
siderably with the use of molecular techniques. Earlier
S. schenckii was considered as the only pathogenic species.
With the description of the sexual form, the fungus was clas-
sified under S. schenckii–Ophiostoma stenoceras complex.
Marimon et al. described three new species Sporothrix
globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix mexicana un-
der the same complex, based on the physiologic, morpholog-
ical and phylogenetic (calmodulin sequences) analyses [5•].
Recently, de Beer et al. conducted the phylogenetic analysis
by sequencing ITS, beta tubulin and calmodulin gene and
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Advances in Diagnosis of
Invasive Fungal Infections
* Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of
Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
Curr Fungal Infect Rep (2017) 11:134–140