Spicules of hexactinellid sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) as natural composite materials

Spicules of hexactinellid sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) as natural composite materials This paper reviews studies on the hexactinellid glass sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) that have organic silica spicules. According to its physical properties (microdensity, Young’s modulus, and light transmission), the material of the spicules is similar to amorphous silica; however, sponge spicules are birefringent, which suggests that they have a highly ordered crystal-like nature. Mineralized remnants of siliceous spicules composed of chemically inert materials are preserved in sedimentary rocks and provide evidence of the ecological state of the ancient biosphere. Sponges occur in waters with low temperatures; therefore, they grow very slowly and live for hundreds of years. The organic silica spicules exhibit the capacity for triboluminescence. The generated light emission may be used by symbiotic bacteria on the spicule surface. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Marine Biology Springer Journals

Spicules of hexactinellid sponges (Hexactinellida: Porifera) as natural composite materials

Loading next page...
Springer US
Copyright © 2013 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Life Sciences; Freshwater & Marine Ecology
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial