1067-4136/05/3605- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2005, pp. 336–342. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 5, 2005, pp. 370–377.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Gabaev, Taupek, Kolotukhina.
Although the greater part of the city of Vladivostok
is on the coast of Amur Bay, its water area is little
known in the biological aspect. This may be due to the
fact that Amur Bay is regarded as the most polluted area
in Peter the Great Bay, and some pollutants have an
adverse effect on the productivity of waters (Patin,
1979). This has been conﬁrmed in a few experiments.
An attempt to estimate the reproductive potential of the
Paciﬁc oyster in the early 1990s failed (Chan and Siva-
Since the mid-1990s, many industries discharging
polluted wastewater to Amur Bay have been put out of
operation or reorganized. To some extent, this has facil-
itated the puriﬁcation of this water area, and phy-
toplanktonic communities have begun to recover
(Stonik, 1999). It has become possible to perform an
experiment aimed at determining the life conditions of
marine invertebrates in epibioses of Amur Bay.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study began in early June 1999. To determine
whether marine invertebrates can colonize artiﬁcial
substrates in Amur Bay, we installed a 50-m carrying
rope 400 m away from the shore, where the water was
7 m deep (Fig. 1, station 1). Beginning on June 15,
devices that served as artiﬁcial substrates were attached
to it at 1-m intervals. They consisted of nylon netting
(mesh size 10 mm) sewn on both sides to form a bag,
which was ﬁlled with either a 1.5-m length of netted
polyethylene hose, or cut plastic bottles, or dead oyster
and anadara (
) shells. Collectors
for mussels were made of 5-m lengths of nylon netting
tied in loops at 40-cm intervals. Collectors for scallops
were mesh bags attached at 1-m intervals to a 6-mm
nylon rope. The total length of a garland of collectors
for scallops was 7 m; for mussels, 4 m; and of bags with
shells and bottles, 1 m. Every three to seven days, ﬁve
devices of each type were suspended on the carrying
rope. Simultaneously, two to three plankton samples
were taken with a Juday net (aperture area 0.1 m
water salinity and temperature at the surface were
determined. Twice a month, in June and July, the sam-
ples of plankton were taken in the Amur Bay estuary
(Fig. 1, station 2). Altogether, 40 garlands of artiﬁcial
substrates were exposed on the carrying rope at station 1.
From June 8 to August 10, 1999, 12 plankton samples
were taken. Two garlands of collectors (for scallop and
for mussel) were attached to the same carrying rope on
June 13, 2000.
Plankton samples were ﬁxed and processed by con-
ventional methods (Kulikova and Kolotukhina, 1989).
The larvae of mass bivalve species and the late larvae of
sea cucumbers were counted, and the results were
recalculated per cubic meter.
In autumn and spring, the collectors were taken out,
and all invertebrates were counted. The results were
divided by the surface area of the substrate. In late June
2001, similar observations were made at old plantations
in the Minonosok Bight, Posiet Bay (Fig. 1, station 3).
Specificity of Life Conditions for Commercial Invertebrates
on Artificial Substrates in the Eutrophicated Amur Bay,
the Sea of Japan
D. D. Gabaev, N. Yu. Taupek, and N. K. Kolotukhina
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Pal’chevskogo 17, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received April 1, 2004
—The consequences of anthropogenic impact on the water area of Amur Bay (the Sea of Japan) near
Vladivostok include the eutrophication of coastal waters and littering with various objects used as artiﬁcial sub-
strates, which protect sedentary animals from predators and contribute to the survival of their larvae. An indi-
cator of eutrophication, the diatom
accounting for 81–96% of the total abundance of
phytoplankton (Stonik and Selina, 1995), is consumed mainly by barnacles and the Paciﬁc oyster. Thus, these
animals gain an advantage in the colonization of artiﬁcial substrates. The results of the study suggest that
eutrophication will lead to changes in the structure of the marine community.
: eutrophication, artiﬁcial substrates, larvae of marine invertebrates, temperature, salinity, abundance
of juveniles, survival.