ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2012, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 225–230. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © M.V. Matantseva, S.A. Simonov, 2012, published in Ekologiya, 2012, No. 3, pp. 204–209.
Studies on specific features of the life of animals at
the northern peripheries of their ranges and their
potential for adaptation to such conditions are of great
interest not only in practical terms but also with regard
to the importance of peripheral populations as poten
tial evolutionary reserves for primary speciation
(Ivanter, 2006). This study deals with the territorial
L., garden warbler
Lath., and lesser whitethroat
L.—in southern Karelia, at the northern
boundaries of their nesting ranges.
Since there is still no consensus on the definitions
of territoriality, it is necessary to explain the meaning
of the terms we use:
Territory (defended area),
part of the area inhabited
by an individual (or pair) where at least some vital
activities of other individuals (or pairs) and similar ter
ritorial behavior of any other individual are prevented
in a certain way (Bardin, 1977).
Display territory (advertised area),
an area occu
pied by a male and advertised by singing with the pur
pose of attracting a female, maintaining acoustic con
tact with neighbors, and marking the territory (Ptush
enko and Inozemtsev, 1968; Panov, 1973). As common
in studies on passerine birds, it is assumed here that the
advertised and defended areas spatially coincide
(Zubtsovskii, Matantsev, and Tyul’kin, 1993).
Spatial and ethological population structure,
pattern of formation and maintenance of nonrandom
groups of individuals characteristic of a given species
( N a u m o v, 1 9 7 2 ; Pa n o v, 1 9 8 3 ) .
STUDY AREA, MATERIAL, AND METHODS
This study was performed from 2007 to 2009 in
southern Karelia, at the Mayachino Ornithological
Field Station of the Institute of Biology, Karelia
Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences. This
station is on the southeastern shore of Lake Ladoga
E) in Olonets district, Republic of
Karelia, near its border with Leningrad oblast. The
controlled plots were established in forests along the
Ladoga Lake shore (in an area 7 km long and 400–
1000 m wide) and in the Obzha River floodplain (in an
area 1 km long and 700 to 1000 m wide).
The biotopes of the study region are characteristic
of the central southern taiga subzone (Yakovlev and
Voronova, 1959). Extensive mixed forests are domi
nant. A considerable proportion of the territory is
occupied by larch–spruce forests with high canopy
closure and welldeveloped understory and under
brush, which grow along rivers and lakes. Spruce for
ests (80–100 years old) and pine–larch forests (70–80
years old) with poorly developed undergrowth grow in
areas with moist soils. Wet and waterlogged soils are
occupied by black alder forests (70–80 years old) with
an admixture of spruce and birch, deciduous under
brush, and welldeveloped ground vegetation layer
formed by ferns, grasses, sedges, and meadowsweet.
Mature dry pine forests (120–130 years old) with
poorly developed understory and underbrush cover
natural levees on the Lake Ladoga shore; in places,
they are replaced by young (20–50 years) pine–birch
stands on dry soils. It has to be noted that these
biotopes cannot be considered optimal for
blers, because these birds usually avoid large and con
tinuous forest areas and prefer nesting in ecotones.
Specific Features of the Territorial Behavior of
at the Northern Periphery of Their Ranges (Southern Karelia)
M. V. Matantseva and S. A. Simonov
Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Pushkinskaya 11, Petrozavodsk, 185610 Russia
Received June 8, 2011
—The spatial and ethological structure of populations and territorial behavior of
have been studied at the northern periphery of their nesting ranges (southern Karelia). It has been found that
under these conditions the warblers form sparse populations, with individual pairs occupying large territories,
and their behavior is characterized by minimization of territorial expenditures (relatively brief vocalization
and the absence of aggressive interactions).
warblers, spatial and ethological structure of populations, territoriality.