ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 9, pp. 1395−1402. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © T.I. Gorbunova, A.Ya. Zapevalov, I.V. Beketov, A.P. Safronov, V.I. Saloutin, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88,
No. 9, pp. 1248−1256.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Speciﬁ c Features of Surface Modiﬁ cation of Activated Nanosize
Copper Particles with 1,2-Oxiranes
T. I. Gorbunova
, A. Ya. Zapevalov
, I. V. Beketov
, A. P. Safronov
, and V. I. Saloutin
Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Sof’i Kovalevskoi 22, Yekaterinburg, 620137 Russia
Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, u. Amundsena 216, Yekaterinburg, 620216 Russia
Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin, ul. Mira 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 Russia
Received August 27, 2015
Abstract—Surface modiﬁ cation of alkali-activated nanosize copper particles with methyl oxiranes containing
substituents of varied nature was studied. A set of physicochemical methods of analysis and visualization of the
Cheerious effect revealed the adhesion binding of organic molecules to the metal surface. A positive effect of
using modiﬁ ed copper particles as additives to industrial oil is demonstrated, manifested in a decrease in the
friction coefﬁ cient as compared with the base oil.
Copper articles occupy one of priority positions
among the most demanded metallic materials because
of being readily available, having high electrical and
thermal conductivity, capable of self-restoration of
original properties, and being ecologically safe . The
application spectrum of macro-, micro-, and nanoparticles
is comparatively wide, but their stable working and high
output capacity requires that methods for modiﬁ cation
of the surface of the material should be developed for
nearly each application ﬁ eld [2–7]. The role of surface
modiﬁ ers can be played by metals and various classes of
organic and inorganic compounds.
The surface of copper particles was commonly
modiﬁ ed with organic compounds in two ways. The
ﬁ rst of these uses water-soluble Cu(II) salts, with the
reaction mass simultaneously containing a reducing
agent and a modiﬁ er or its precursor changing as a result
of the chemical reaction and transformed to a modiﬁ er.
As a result, the Cu
+ 2e → Cu
transition occurs in
situ and copper particles are modiﬁ ed . Frequently,
transformations of this kind yield modiﬁ ed nanosize
copper particles . The second modiﬁ cation method
is based on directly using Cu
particles situated in the
same zone with the modiﬁ er or its precursor [2, 6, 9, 10].
As a rule, these processes occur in organic or aqueous-
organic media. In both cases, the type of binding is based
on adhesive properties exhibited by the modiﬁ er toward
copper particles. A copper particle modiﬁ ed with an
organic compound by the core–shell principle is shown
schematically in Fig. 1a.
Frequently, the adhesion of organic molecules on the
surface of copper particles is so weak that the core–shell
structure is disintegrated even upon a short use of the
modiﬁ ed material, and, therefore, the desired service
effects are not obtained. One of methods for enhancing
the adhesive stability of the pair constituted by Cu and
an organic molecule is by using compounds with polar
groups (–OH, –SN, =NH, –C=O, –O–C=O, etc.) as
modifiers [11–15], which make higher the adhesion
energy owing to the coordination and cohesion of free
electrons of atoms (O, S, N, etc.) with the metal surface.
However, the ﬁ xation of organic molecules on the metal
surface can be provided by introducing between the core
and the organic shell an intermediate layer capable of
covalently binding to the organic component (Fig. 1b).
A necessary condition for a successful implementation of
this idea is that the role of an intermediate layer should
be played by a reagent capable of adhesively binding