Autosomal monosomies represent a severe form of genomic disbalance which determines elimination of human embryos already at the preimplantation stages. As a rule, they occur very rarely in the materials of spontaneously aborted embryos and fetuses. Molecular-cytogenetic studies were carried out on the karyotype of cells of 60 spontaneous abortuses of I trimester of pregnancy with cell degeneration or absence of cell proliferation in the cultures, as a result of which the cells could not be studied using the standard metaphase analysis. The embryos were characterized by an unexpectedly high frequency of mosaic variants of monosomies for chromosomes 7, 15, 21, and 22, which amounted to 19% of all chromosome aberrations. Lethal forms of monosomies for human chromosomes 7 and 15 were described for the first time, since they are not found in spontaneous abortuses by standard cytogenetic methods. A hypothesis was proposed which accounts for the possibility of early postimplantation lethality of the embryos with mosaic forms of autosomal monosomies. The differences were found between the cells with monosomies for different autosomes in the mechanisms of origin, intertissue localization, and phenotypic effects. It was shown that monosomies for chromosomes 7, 15, 21, and 22 in a mosaic state with the normal cell line can be compatible with the early stages of postimplantation differentiation of the cytotrophoblast. Predominant compartmentalization of the cells with monosomies for chromosomes 21 and 22 in the extraembryonic mesoderm, a derivative of epiblast, can be a critical factor, which makes the normal morphogenesis of embryonic structures impossible.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 18, 2004
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