1063-0740/02/2803- $27.00 © 2002
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2002, pp. 163–168.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2002 by Biologiya Morya, Kashenko.
Stands of algae and sea grasses are an important
component of coastal biocenoses that often determine
the general appearance and structure of the latter. They
also provide food and shelter for numerous animal spe-
cies. Marine plants keenly respond to changes in hydro-
climate and accumulate many elements in their thal-
luses. In this connection, they might be considered not
only as indicators of environmental pollution, but also
as a kind of bioﬁlter that cleans the environment.
Peter the Great Bay is one of the largest bays in the
Russian Far East. It has a unique combination of envi-
ronmental characteristics. In summer the water in its
bights warms up to 25–28
C, whereas in winter it
freezes down to negative temperatures. The great range
of temperature ﬂuctuations throughout the year is one
of the reasons for signiﬁcant seasonal ﬂoral and faunal
changes. Moreover, the ﬂora of the bay is prone to
anthropogenic pollution and, therefore, it is of great
interest to study the consequences of this phenomenon.
Especially important are studies on species composi-
tion, distribution, and seasonal dynamics of macro-
phytes in the Far-Eastern State Marine Reserve
(FESMR). This is the only natural marine reserve in
Russia and it is located in Peter the Great Bay. The ﬂora
of macrophytes in the reserve still remains very poorly
studied. In some areas of Peter the Great Bay, qualita-
tive or quantitative surveys have been performed in the
intertidal and upper subtidal zones . In the reserve,
however, even a relatively full species list of algae is not
yet complete. On the other hand, the importance of the
macrophyte studies in the reserve is obvious, even if the
expected fundamental results of such a project is not
taken into account : the reserve is prone to transbound-
ary pollution by the runoff of the Tumannaya River, the
boundary river between Russia and China. The river
would be under an even greater threat if a large harbor
and a transportation center are developed in this area.
The Southern Area of FESMR, located 18 km from the
mouth of the Tumannaya River, is supposedly even
more prone to transboundary pollution.
Furugel’ma Island (Fig. 1) is a part of the Southern
Area of FESMR and is located 24 km inland from the
mouth of the Tumannaya River. The bulk of the coast-
line of the island is rocky, and small sandy bights with
small streams enter the island in the north and west.
Southern and southeastern winds dominate in summer,
while northern and northwestern winds dominate dur-
ing the winter. The island is surrounded by submerged
and exposed rocks. Small tidal ﬂuctuations (about
0.5 m) are almost always concealed due to the surf;
therefore, it is not always possible to distinguish differ-
ent ﬂoors or even horizons of the intertidal zone.
Gul’bin et al.  have separated the intertidal zone of
the island into four bionomic types differing from each
other in granulometric composition and mobility of
substrates. According to Lukin , the subtidal zone
might be referred to as the second (southern and eastern
coasts of the island) and third (northern and westerns
coasts) bionomic types.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials were collected by the author on Furu-
gel’ma Island from July 5 to August 25, 1999. The mac-
rophyte samples were collected in the intertidal and
subtidal zones, down to the lower limits of their distri-
bution (to 15 m depth) using scuba gear. During the
sampling, we visually identiﬁed homogeneous areas in
Species Composition and Qualitative Distribution
of Macrophytes in Intertidal and Upper Subtidal Zones
of Furugel’ma Island (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)
N. V. Kashenko
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received June 8, 2001
—During the summer of 1999 we studied the species composition and distribution of macrophytes in
the intertidal and upper subtidal zones around Furugel’ma Island and determined the qualitative characteristics
of their distribution (biomass and projective coverage) and sizes. The samples were collected along 27 hydro-
botanical transects. Our analysis of the obtained data allowed us to distinguish and describe eight macrophyte-
macrophytes, associations, distribution.