ISSN 10630740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2011, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 23–32. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © M.S. Selina, E.V. Levchenko, 2011, published in Biologiya Morya.
Dinophytes or dinoflagellates are one of the most
diverse and widely distributed groups of microalgae in
the World’s Oceans. Representatives occur in the
water column, in surface sediments, and among foul
ings on artificial and natural substrates. By the late
1990s, 332 species of dinoflagellates belonging to
58 genera were known for the plankton of the Far
Eastern seas of Russia and the adjacent Pacific waters
. At the beginning of the present century, any infor
mation on dinoflagellates from other biotopes of this
region was lacking.
The first studies of dinoflagellates in marine coastal
sands of the northwestern Sea of Japan revealed their
significant diversity [6, 23, 37–39]. Even preliminary
data showed that 64 species of benthic and benthic–
planktonic species of dinoflagellates occur in this area.
The occurrence of 37 species was recorded for the first
time in the seas of Russia [6, 37]. The small number of
previous studies on epiphytic assemblages of macro
phytes in the Russia Far Eastern seas reported only on
diatoms among the microalgae [3, 5, 8]. At the same
time, it is well known that dinoflagellates of epiphytic
assemblages on macrophytes are more diverse and
abundant than those in the water column and in sedi
ment [1, 16, 45].
Like planktonic forms, epiphytic dinoflagellates
can produce toxins causing the death of fish and vari
ous types of poisoning in warmblooded animals and
humans. Out of 80 species of dinoflagellates that are
capable of producing various types of toxins ,
about 20 species can be both epiphytic and benthic
[15, 28, 33].
The present work was aimed at studying the species
composition of dinoflagellates and revealing poten
tially toxic species in epiphytic assemblages on macro
phytes in the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples of dinoflagellates were collected in
August–October 2006 from macrophytes at depths
ranging from 0.5 to 3 m in Sobol Bight (43
E). The sampling site is located in an open part
of Ussuriisky Bay (Peter the Great Bay) little protected
from wave action (Fig. 1). Surface water temperature
during the study period decreased from 22 to 10
salinity slightly varied from 30 to 34%. In all, 40 sam
ples were examined. From 11 to 16 species of macro
phytes were investigated.
The thalli of macrophytes were cut free with a
knife, stored in plastic bottles, and transported to the
laboratory. The algae were thoroughly rinsed in seawa
ter to remove the epiphytes. The suspension was sieved
through a screen with a mesh size of 150
m and then
concentrated by filtration through a 20
m mesh size
gauze. The final volume of the subsample was adjusted
Species Composition and Morphology of Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta)
of Epiphytic Assemblages of Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan
M. S. Selina and E. V. Levchenko
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received May 25, 2010
—The species composition of dinoflagellates in epiphytic assemblages at 0.5–3 m depth in Sobol
Bight (Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan) was examined in August–October 2006. A total of
29 dinoflagellate species were found. Planktonic species contributed 54% and benthic and benthic–plank
tonic species together contributed 36% to the total number of dinoflagellate species. The latter group was rep
resented by 13 species of eight genera, including five potentially toxic species. The occurrences of
Murray et Patterson,
et Nagahama are recorded for the seas of Russia for the first time.
Hulburt is the first
record for the Far Eastern seas and
Hoppenrath et Selina for the Sea of Japan.
Morphological descriptions of dinoflagellates that are new records for the study region or potentially toxic
species are given. One to ten species of benthic and benthic–planktonic dinoflagellates per macrophyte were
found. In all, 13 species of red algae, 9 brown algae, 3 green algae, and 1 species of seagrass were examined.
were the most frequent and abundant.
: Dinoflagellates, epiphytic assemblage,
, Sea of Japan.