Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2017) 71:133 DOI 10.1007/s00265-017-2361-x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sparrowhawk movement, calling, and presence of dead conspecifics differentially impact blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) vocal and behavioral mobbing responses 1 1,2 1,3 Nora V. Carlson & Helen M. Pargeter & Christopher N. Templeton Received: 26 May 2017 /Revised: 27 July 2017 /Accepted: 31 July 2017 The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication Abstract behavior and vocalizations. These results indicate that differ- Many animals alter their anti-predator behavior in accordance ent components of mobbing vary according to the specific to the threat level of a predator. While much research has state of a given predator—beyond its presence or absence— examined variation in mobbing responses to different preda- and suggest that each might play a different role in the overall tors, few studies have investigated how anti-predator behavior mobbing response. Last, our results indicate that using more is affected by changes in a predator’s own state or behavior. life-like predator stimuli—those featuring simple head move- We examined the effect of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)be- ments and audio playback of vocalizations—changes how havior on the mobbing response of wild blue tits (Cyanistes prey respond to the predator; these ‘robo-raptor’ models pro-
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 13, 2017
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