Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment

Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment Fluoride, a naturally occurring element, exists in combination with other elements as a fluoride compound, and is found naturally in water, foods, soil, and several minerals such as fluorite and fluorapatite. Fluoride normally enters the environment and human body through water, food, industrial exposure, drugs, cosmetics, etc. However, fluoride (F−) contamination in groundwater has been recognized as a serious problem worldwide. The World Health Organization’s specified tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/L. Human disease caused by fluoride manifests itself in three forms: dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis. Apart from teeth and bones, the interaction and involvement of soft tissues, organs, and other systems of the body with fluoride leads to non-skeletal fluorosis. It leads to many bone diseases, mottling of teeth, and lesions of the endocrine glands, thyroid, liver, kidney, and other organs. Fluoride ion concentration in drinking water can be easily estimated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various defluoridation techniques have been developed to reduce the fluoride content to the desired level including principally membrane and adsorption processes. Biosorption is still one of the most extensively used methods for defluoridation of drinking water due to it being cost-free or low cost and because of its viability. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Research on Chemical Intermediates Springer Journals

Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Subject
Chemistry; Catalysis; Physical Chemistry; Inorganic Chemistry
ISSN
0922-6168
eISSN
1568-5675
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11164-012-0841-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Fluoride, a naturally occurring element, exists in combination with other elements as a fluoride compound, and is found naturally in water, foods, soil, and several minerals such as fluorite and fluorapatite. Fluoride normally enters the environment and human body through water, food, industrial exposure, drugs, cosmetics, etc. However, fluoride (F−) contamination in groundwater has been recognized as a serious problem worldwide. The World Health Organization’s specified tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/L. Human disease caused by fluoride manifests itself in three forms: dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis. Apart from teeth and bones, the interaction and involvement of soft tissues, organs, and other systems of the body with fluoride leads to non-skeletal fluorosis. It leads to many bone diseases, mottling of teeth, and lesions of the endocrine glands, thyroid, liver, kidney, and other organs. Fluoride ion concentration in drinking water can be easily estimated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various defluoridation techniques have been developed to reduce the fluoride content to the desired level including principally membrane and adsorption processes. Biosorption is still one of the most extensively used methods for defluoridation of drinking water due to it being cost-free or low cost and because of its viability.

Journal

Research on Chemical IntermediatesSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 19, 2012

References

  • The impact of freshwater and wastewater irrigation on the chemistry of shallow groundwater: a case study from the Israeli Coastal Aquifer
    Kass, A; Gavrieli, I; Yechieli, Y; Vengosh, A; Starinsky, A
  • Environmental impact of an urban landfill on a coastal aquifer
    Amina, C; Younsi, A; Lhadi, LK; Mania, J; Mudry, J; Veron, A
  • Contamination of groundwater under cultivated fields in an arid environment, central Arava Valley, Israel
    Oren, O; Yechieli, Y; Böhlke, JK; Dody, A
  • Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate
    Anwar, F
  • Adsorption kinetics of fluoride on low cost materials
    Fan, X; Parker, DJ; Smith, MD
  • Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution by acid treated spent bleaching earth
    Mahramanlioglu, M; Kizilcikli, I; Bicer, IO
  • Fluoride in water: a UK perspective
    Harrison, PTC

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