ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 436−441. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © O.V. Alekseeva, N.A. Bagrovskaya, A.V. Noskov, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 431−436.
AND ION EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions by Cellulose Modiﬁ ed
O. V. Alekseeva, N. A. Bagrovskaya, and A. V. Noskov
Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Akademicheskaya 1, Ivanovo, 153045 Russia
Received December 6, 2014
Abstract—Сеlulose was modiﬁ ed by impregnation of the polymer with a solution of C
in ortho-xylene. Speciﬁ c features of the sorption kinetics of Cu(II),Ni(II), and Cd(II) ions on cellulose and com-
posite materials were researched. Pseudo-ﬁ rst- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to determine
the quantitative characteristics of the process. It was demonstrated that the sorption efﬁ ciency of metal ions on
fullerene-containing cellulose substantially increases. The improvement of the sorption properties of the modiﬁ ed
polymer is due to the increase in the concentration of active sorption properties and to a change in the structure
of the sorbent.
Cellulose is one of the most abundant biopolymers
having a permanently renewable raw material resources
base and ﬁ nds wide application in manufacture of paper,
ﬁ bers, membranes, and sorbents and in medicine and
pharmaceutics. Natural cellulose materials effectively
recover heavy metal ions from aqueous electrolyte
solutions, exhibit selectivity, are easily regenerated,
and remain operable in aqueous-organic media .
Introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into biopolymers
enables purposeful control over their structure and
physicochemical properties, which imparts novel
properties, e.g., biological activity, to a composite
material. Nanoparticles of metal oxides, carbon
nanotubes, and fullerenes can be used as modifying ﬁ llers.
An analysis of the literature demonstrated that
publications concerned with modiﬁ cation of cellulose-
containing polymers with carbon nanoparticles are
few in number [2, 3]. A probable reason is that the
conventional methods for modiﬁ cation of polymers with
fullerenes, in the course of synthesis or by casting from a
common solvent, are inapplicable in the case of cellulose.
Composites of cellulose and its derivatives with fullerenes
are produced by mechanical dispersion of carbon
nanoparticles in a polymeric matrix and impregnation of
cellulose samples with a fullerene solution in an organic
In , film samples of bacterial cellulose with
0.005 wt % C
were obtained in two ways: by treatment
of cellulose with a solution of fullerene in toluene and
by dispersion of bacterial cellulose in a water–toluene
dispersion of fullerene, with the subsequent removal
of the solvent. An analysis by dielectric spectroscopy
demonstrated that distribution of fullerene particles in
the matrix of bacterial cellulose leads to loosening of the
laminated structure of the polymer.
Previously, fullerene has been transferred from a
solution in chloroform into an aqueous medium by using a
water-soluble polymer, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and
composite ﬁ lms have been obtained . An antimicrobial
effect of fullerene-containing HEC ﬁ lms on bacterium
coli and staphylococcus was observed.
It is known that various forms of fullerene (C
fullerene nanotubes, fullerene black) exhibit adsorption
capacity for organic solvents [4, 5] and metal ions.
Doping of polymers with fullerenes makes it possible to
obtain materials with improved sorption characteristics.
However, numerous aspects of how modifying additives
affect adsorption processes remain poorly understood.