Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 12, pp. 1867−1873.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © A.K. Sagidullin, B.S. Smolyakov, L.M. Levchenko, A.A. Galitskii, A.L. Bychkov, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013,
Vol. 86, No. 12, pp. 1919−1924.
Sorption of Cadmium Ions from Aqueous Solutions
onto Nanoporous Modiﬁ ed Carbon Sorbents
A. K. Sagidullin, B. S. Smolyakov, L. M. Levchenko, A. A. Galitskii, and A. L. Bychkov
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Received December 13, 2013
Abstract—Physicochemical properties of nanoporous modiﬁ ed carbon sorbents and sorption of cadmium ions
(0.1–20 mg L
) onto them from nitrate solutions at pH 5–7 were studied. The acid–base nature of functional
oxygen-containing groups on the carbon surface of the sorbents was determined. The ability to sorb cadmium ions
depends on the kind of chemical modiﬁ cation of the sorbent surface.
Heavy metal ions are among the most hazardous
environmental pollutants. They get into water bodies
both from localized (wastewaters from metallurgical and
galvanic plants where heavy metal compounds are used,
household wastewaters) and scattered (drained rainwater)
sources [1, 2].
Localized sources are characterized by relatively low
water volumes at relatively high pollutant concentrations.
In this case, sorption technologies allow efﬁ cient removal
of metals from aqueous media. Recently there has been
considerable progress in the development of composite
carbon-containing sorbents, including biosorbents [3–5].
At the same time, growing requirements to the purity
of aqueous media and to the level of sorption technolo-
gies call for the development of novel sorption materials
allowing efﬁ cient treatment of not only limited water
volumes from local pollution sources, but also of whole
water bodies (rivers, lakes), characterized by relatively
low pollutant concentrations and large water volumes.
The approach to the solution of this problem is based
on purposeful synthesis of carbon sorbents, involving
chemical modification to obtain oxygen-containing
functional groups (carboxy, phenol, lactone, etc.) on the
carbon surface .
This study deals with the sorption of cadmium ions
from model dilute nitrate solutions onto nanoporous
carbon sorbents with the surface chemically modiﬁ ed
with various reagents.
The investigation objects were nanoporous modi-
ﬁ ed carbon sorbents (NMCSs) prepared by chemical
modiﬁ cation of Tekhnosorb composite carbon material
[TU (Technical Speciﬁ cation) 38 41538, Institute for
Problems of Hydrocarbon Processing, Omsk; fraction
0.7–1.5 mm, pore diameter 4 nm, speciﬁ c surface area
, pycnometric density 2.05–2.08 g cm
free pore volume 62–64%]. The carbon material composi-
tion, according to chemical analysis, coresponds to the
, total content of microimpuri-
ties 239.6 ppm.
The modiﬁ cation of the NMCS surface, initially with
a low content of functional groups, was performed in
accordance with the procedure described in , by oxi-
dation of the material with hydrogen peroxide (sample
). Sample NMCS
modiﬁ ed with humic acids recovered from brown coal