Aim To evaluate the role of kidney echogenicity and morphology in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus- associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Subjects and methods In the cross-sectional study, a sample of 340 anti-retroviral therapy (ART)-naïve AIDS patients under- went laboratory CD4+ count, serum creatinine determination and sonographic renal echogenicity grading and size measure- ment. Rounded kidneys were described as bulbous while bean-shaped kidneys were described as reniform; echogenicity was categorized into grades 0, 1, 2 and 3. Kidney length, width, thickness and volume were measured in HIVAN and control groups. Results Mean age of the population was 42.7 ± 9.4 years; 87.4% had HIVAN. Mean CD4+ count, serum creatinine and 3 2 GFR for HIVAN patients were 153.1 ± 103.2 cells/mm , 218.4 ± 147.4 mmol/L and 50.1 ± 23.6 mL/min/1.73 m for males 3 2 and 121.9 ± 91.0 cells/mm , and 222.0 ± 150.4 mmol/L and 39.3 ± 20.6 mL/min/1.73 m for females, respectively; control subjects and non-HIVAN patients had grade 0 renal echogenicity; 56.9% of HIVAN patients had echogenicity grade 3; 5.3% had kidney length < 10 cm; 73.9% had bulbous kidneys; the kidney was significantly wider and thicker in HIVAN ( p < 0.05). Conclusion Sonographic evaluation of renal echogenicity and morphology can reliably predict HIVAN diagnosis. Apathy to screening and late presentation were high while HIV/AIDS remains an important public health
Journal of Ultrasound – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 5, 2018
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