ISSN 10623604, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 2012, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 353–361. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2012.
Original Russian Text © I.N. Tret’yakova, A.V. Barsukova, 2012, published in Ontogenez, 2012, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 425–435.
Cell totipotency is a significant life strategy of plant
organisms. This strategy is most conspicuous in in vitro
culture and, especially, somatic embryogenesis.
Somatic embryogenesis, an asexual way of propaga
tion in gymnosperms, was first described in
26 years ago (Chalupa, 1985; Hakman et al., 1985).
Somatic embryogenesis is now used to study morphoge
netic programs such as determination, differentiation,
and competence, as well as to widely distribute highly
productive and resistant to plant pathogens genetically
advanced forms of conifers (Lelu et al., 1994; Lelu
Walter et al., 2008; Park, 2002, 2006; Klimaszewska
et al., 2001).
Among conifers, representatives of the genus
are the most widespread forestforming trees in Russia.
They differ in morphological features, silvicultural
characteristics, rhythms of seasonal development, and
morphogenesis of vegetative and generative organs.
They are also characterized by rapid growth, vigorous
assimilation, transpiration, and high productivity
(Dylis, 1947; Rozhkov et al., 1991; Iroshnikov, 2004).
Occupying a wide geographical range, the species of
are extremely strong mechanically
which makes them different from all the other represen
tatives of the family Pinaceae (Tret’yakova et al., 2006).
This feature is associated with periodic needle cast,
switching of brachyblasts to generative development
and switching of generative structures to sporophytic
development, thick covering around the pollen grain
which prevents pollen from germinating under the
unfavorable conditions, absence of biological rest in
generative and vegetative organs during the winter
period, and the vast morphogenetic potential allowing
the adaptation of larch species to unfavorable environ
mental factors (Tret’yakova et al., 2006).
At the same time, larch species are characterized by
an irregular yield pattern during a longterm period and
poor seed quality. This phenomenon is most pro
nounced in Siberian larch, whose cone crop is signifi
cantly lower (or is absent at all in some years) if com
pared to other representatives of the genus
nin, 1986; Milyutin, 2003; Iroshnikov, 2004). In
addition, its stands are severely destroyed by the larch
bud midge that affects the crops of larch stands.
In order to solve the problem of plant regeneration
in larch species, foreign researchers elaborate the pro
grams based on modern biotechnologies for micro
clonal propagation, such as somatic embryogenesis
(Park, 2002, 2006).
Somatic embryogenesis was induced in the following
species of the genus
et al., 1990),
(LeluWalter and Pagues,
2009); in hybrids:
L. x occidentalis
(Thompson and von
L. x eurolepis
) (Klimaszwska, 1989; von Aderkas et al., 1990;
L. x marscinlinsii
) (Lelu et al., 1994; LeluWalter and Pagues,
2009). In 2008, we published our first work on initiation
of somatic embryogenesis in Siberian larch (Beloruss
ova and Tret’yakova, 2008). For the first time ever, this
work describes hormoneinfluenced embryogenesis
during initiation and proliferation of morphogenic cal
lus in embryonic somatic cells.
Somatic Embryogenesis in in vitro Culture of Three Larch Species
I. N. Tret’yakova and A. V. Barsukova
Sukachev Institute of Forestry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Received April 21, 2011; in final form, January 30, 2012
—Embryogenic callus formation in different larch species from Siberia (
) was carried out on MSGm medium supplemented with growth regulators (2.4D and
BAP) and followed one and the same scheme: elongation of somatic cells and their asymmetric division with
formation of initial and tube cells. The cells of embryo initial underwent sequential divisions and formed
embryonic globules which caused the formation of somatic embryos. Somatic embryos became mature and
germinated by addition of ABA and PEG into the medium. Longterm proliferating cell lines and regenerant
plants were obtained in Sukachev larch and its hybrid with Siberian larch. The success of somatic embryo
genesis depended on the genotype of the donor tree.
: somatic embryogenesis, in vitro culture, Siberian larch, Dahurian larch, Sukachev larch
: 2.4D—dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; BAP—
6benzilaminopurin; ABA—abscisic acid; PEG—polyethylene
glycol; IBA—indolebutyric acid; Gelrite—gelatinizing agent;