1070-4272/05/7803-0404+2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2005, pp. 404 ! 408. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 3,
2005, pp. 403! 407.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Gaivoronskii, Granzhan.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Solubility of Adipic Acid in Organic Solvents and Water
A. N. Gaivoronskii and V. A. Granzhan
Khimtekhnologiya State Research and Designing Institute of Chemical Engineering, Severodonetsk,
Lugansk oblast, Ukraine
Received December 22, 2004
Abstract-The solubility of adipic acid in methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, tert-butanol,
acetone, 1,4-dioxane, acetic acid, and water was measured within the 0360oC temperature range. A sampler
for determination of the temperature dependence of the solubility of solids in liquids by the isothermal method
was suggested. The thermodynamic parameters of solution of adipic acid in the above solvents were cal-
culated. The dependence of the solubility on the solvent and temperature was considered.
Adipic acid (AA) is a large-capacity product used
mainly in fiber production. The solubility of solids in
liquids is one of the most important process param-
eters and is of scientific interest for the development
of the solution theory.
Analytically pure grade adipic acid was recrystal-
lized twice from water and dried at 120oC. Its melting
point was 151.5+0.2oC, which agrees with the most
reliable published data . Chemically pure and
analytically pure grade organic solvents were dried
by standard procedures . Acetone and alcohols
were kept for a day over drierite and then distilled.
1,4-Dioxane was kept over KOH for two weeks, re-
fluxed over sodium metal for a day, and then distilled.
Acetic acid had mp 16.6oC after twofold freezing.
The water content in solvents was no higher than
(wt %): 0.04 in methanol, 0.08 in ethanol, 0.06 in
propanol, 0.06 in isopropanol, 0.08 in n-butanol, 0.08
in tert-butanol, 0.02 in acetone, 0.02 in 1,4-dioxane,
and 0.1 in acetic acid. The water content in acetic acid
was determined using the melting point depression
curve  and in the other solvents, by Fischer titra-
tion. Double-distilled water was used.
The AA solubility was determined by the isother-
mal method. The thermodynamic equilibrium between
excess solid phase at the solvent was attained by con-
tinuous agitation and a constant temperature with a
device consisting of a U-10 ultrathermostat and a
mechanical stirrer. The stirrer was mounted on the
To determine the solubility, adipic acid and a solv-
ent were charged into 1003200-ml flasks with
ground-glass stoppers. The flasks were fixed on a
coupling rod and introduced into a thermostat. The
flask contents were stirred by reciprocal motion of the
flask, provided by a synchronous electric motor (e.g.,
SD-54 motor with 60 rpm rotation speed) equipped
with a crank system. The temperature was kept con-
stant to within +0.1oC.
To measure the solubility by the isothermal meth-
od, solution samples should be taken for analysis in
Sampler: (1) tube, (2) glass frit. (3) temperature-controlled
pipet, (4) connecting tubes, (5) conical ground-glass joint,
and (6) stopcock.