Upgraded metallurgical grade silicon (UMG-Si) was obtained through metallurgical methods using two steps. First, metallurgical grade silicon was purified by the vacuum degassing technique using an electron-beam system. An ingot was then produced through Czochralski (CZ) growth. This later process was also used to reduce impurities through the segregation phenomenon in the CZ technique, producing a material of 99.9993% purity, one order of magnitude less pure than the minimum required for solar grade silicon. Solar cells fabricated with polycrystalline silicon with that amount of impurities are of low efficiency. Thus, the CZ technique was also adopted to supply monocrystalline silicon in order to avoid additional defects due to the grain boundary of polycrystalline wafers. Adopting this procedure, we produced solar cells with an efficiency of 13%, using a very simple fabrication process. Keywords Czochralski growth · Upgraded metallurgical grade silicon · Solar cells · Vacuum degassing 1 Introduction Here we present a procedure to purify metallurgical grade silicon by adopting two steps. First, metallurgical grade Currently, commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules are silicon was purified by vacuum degassing (VD) using an fabricated mainly using monocrystalline or polycrystalline electron-beam system. The total impurity obtained by this process is relatively high, such
Silicon – Springer Journals
Published: May 30, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera