1070-4272/01/7407-1235$25.00C2001 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 74, No. 7, 2001, pp. 1235!1239. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 74, No. 7,
2001, pp. 1200!1204.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2001 by Syroezhko, Proskuryakov, Begak, Fedorov, Korchemkin, Sokolova, Kuznetsova.
OF FOSSIL FUEL
Softeners for Rubber and Corrosion-Resistant Coatings Based
on Shale and Petroleum Raw Materials
A. M. Syroezhko, V. A. Proskuryakov, O. Yu. Begak, V. V. Fedorov,
S. N. Korchemkin, Yu. V. Sokolova, and O. Yu. Kuznetsova
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received March 6, 2001
Abstract-A broad spectrum of softeners for vulcanized rubber and corrosion-resistant materials are obtained
by mechanical mixing of kerogen shale (Kerogen-70
) with commercial products of petroleum refining and
shale chemistry such as oil tar, bitumens BND 90/130 and G, softener A-10, residue of atmospheric distillation
of crude shale oil boiling above 350oC, and also by thermal treatment of the indicated mixtures at 3603400oC.
Selection of the type and concentration of plas-
ticizers (softeners) in rubber compounds is made
depending on the destination of a product. Softener B
(residue of atmospheric distillation of crude shale oil)
finds wide application in reclaiming of tire rubber.
However, the quality of this softener is not sufficient-
ly high. One of the most important factors controlling
the quality of a softener is its polarity. High polarity
provides strong interaction of a softener with the
polymer and high strength of the reclaimed rubber.
The performance of shale softeners of various fraction
and chemical compositions in reclaiming of rubber of
various types was studied at the Research Institute for
Tire Industry (Moscow, Russia). The best performance
was demonstrated by the softeners containing phenols
in the high-boiling fraction of shale oil and also ther-
mal polycondensation products obtained by thermal
treatment at about 400oC of high-boiling fractions
from atmospheric distillation of crude producer shale
oil. Such softeners are characterized by a softening
point of about 803100oC (determined by the ring-and-
ball method). High reclaiming characteristics of these
softeners were confirmed by production test results.
Rubraxes were demonstrated to be high-quality sof-
teners also. They facilitate dispersion of carbon black
in a rubber compound and improve the moisture re-
sistance of the products, their hardness and modulus
of rupture, but somewhat decrease the elasticity.
Rubraxes have diverse effects on vulcanized rubber,
since they tends to oxidation, condensation, interac-
tion with sulfur, and antiscorching.
The purpose of this work was development of mod-
ified softeners based on kerogen shale (Kerogen-70)
Contains 70% organics.
and the product of thermal treatment of high-boiling
residue from atmospheric distillation of producer shale
oil boiling above 350oC [1, 2], and also of those
based on Kerogen-70 and oil tar. Additionally, to ob-
tain the softeners we used mechanical mixing of com-
mercial products from the Ukhta refinery (bitumen G
or BND 90/130; softener A-10) with Kerogen-70. The
softeners obtained in the work were compared with
the ordinary softeners (Rubraxes) .
The characteristics of the initial products used in
this work were as follows. Kerogen-70. Working
moisture content 1.1% and ash content 27.2%. Ele-
mental composition of the organic (kerogen) fraction
(%): C 77.4, H 9.65, O 9.75, N 0.6, and S 2.6.
Crude producer shale oil. Density 1010 kg m
Fraction composition, oC (%): <200 (8), 2003
250 (10), and 3003350 (14). Elemental composition
(%): C 83, H 8.8, S 1.1, N 0.3, and O 6.8.
Softener A-10 is produced at the Ukhta refinery
from a mixture of asphalt of Yarega oil (25%), heavy
cuts from motor oil production (50%), and residue
from distillation of Usinsk oil (25%). Softening point
126oC and penetration at 25oC1100.1 mm. Ele-
mental composition (%): C 84.31, H 10.68, N 0.49, S
0.71, and O 3.81.
Bitumen G (Ukhta refinery). Softening point 126oC
and penetration at 25oC500.1 mm.
Bitumen BND 90/130 (Kirishi refinery). Softening
point 46oC and penetration at 25oC 100 0 0.1 mm,
ductility 60 cm (25oC), and brittle point 323oC.