P1: IAS/GOQ P2: GVG
Sex Roles [sers] pp489-sers-373446 May 3, 2002 12:4 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Sex Roles, Vol. 45, Nos. 11/12, December 2001 (
Social Identity, Modern Sexism, and Perceptions
of Personal and Group Discrimination
by Women and Men
James E. Cameron
University of Queensland
Perceptions of gender-related discrimination against the self and group were
examined in women and men, with a focus on the predictive utility of mod-
ern sexism and 3 dimensions of social identiﬁcation (ingroup ties, centrality,
and ingroup affect). Questionnaires were completed by 321 undergraduates
(206 women and 115 men), of whom 78% self-identiﬁed as White and 10%
as Asian. Higher levels of personal and group discrimination tended to be
perceived by high-neosexism men and low-neosexism women. The centrality
of gender identiﬁcation was positively related to men’s personal-level per-
ceptions of discrimination, whereas effects of the emotional facets of social
identity—ingroup ties and ingroup affect—occurred jointly with both gender
and modern sexism. The results are discussed with reference to social identity
theory and the personal/group discrimination discrepancy.
KEY WORDS: social identity; gender; modern sexism; discrimination.
Perceptions of discrimination and disadvantage play a key role in the poli-
tics of identity underlying feminism and other social movements. Such be-
liefs can operate in a number of ways. At an ideological level, a critique
of asymmetrical relations of status and power between women and men
provides a foundation for efforts directed at social change. At an individ-
ual level, perceptions of discrimination are potentially important predictors
of social movement participation for women and members of other dis-
advantaged groups (Kawakami & Dion, 1995; Kelly & Breinlinger, 1995).
Recent research suggests, however, that men, as members of a relatively
To whom correspondence should be addressed at Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s
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2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation