Sludge flotation is a commonly reported and long-standing issue hindering not only the widespread implementation of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-type bioreactors in wastewater treatment but also the development of novel anaerobic/anoxic treatment processes such as anammox, partial denitrification, and biological sulfate reduction. This review attempts to address the instability of UASB-type bioreactors due to sludge flotation. Possible causes of sludge flotation are classified into intrinsic and extrinsic ones. Extrinsic causes include substrate overloading, inappropriate carbon source, overloading of proteins or oils, insufficient reactor mixing, a low temperature, and a low pH. These unfavorable extrinsic conditions can lead to unexpected intrinsic changes in sludge granules, including high gas production, formation of hollow space inside the granules, filamentous bacterial overgrowth, inappropriate production of extracellular polymeric substances, and development of an adhesive granule surface. These intrinsic changes can increase the flotation potential of sludge through reducing the granule density and promoting gas entrapment. To control the sludge flotation problem, both preventive and corrective strategies are summarized. Preventive strategies include maintaining a temperature of 30–35 °C and a pH of 7–9, preventing substrate overloading, providing sufficient nutrients and multiple carbon sources in the influent, applying pre-acidification, and enhancing reactor mixing. If the causes of a sludge flotation incident cannot be identified quickly, corrective strategies including breaking up floating granules and dosing with chemicals such as Fe2+ and surfactants can be applied to suppress the flotation problem.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 3, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera