An experimental method for simultaneously measuring the velocity fields on the air and water side of unsteady breaking waves is presented. The method includes a novel technique for seeding the air flow such that the air velocity can be resolved in the absence of wind. Low density particles that have large Stokes drag and ability to respond to high-frequency flow fluctuations are used to seed the air flow. Multi-camera, multi-laser particle image velocimetry setups are applied to small-scale unsteady breaking waves, yielding fully time-resolved velocity fields. The surface tension of the fluid is altered and controlled to form spilling breaking waves. Results for the velocity and vorticity fields of representative spilling breakers, which show shedding of an air-side vortex and well-documented generation of water-side vorticity, are presented and discussed.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 15, 2010
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