ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 200−206. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © M.F. Chen, X.Y. Ma, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 221−226.
AND METAL PROTECTION FROM CORROSION
Simultaneous Detection of Epinephrine, Uric Acid,
and Ascorbic Acid with Graphene-Modiﬁ ed Electrode
M. F. Chen and X. Y. Ma
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Heze University, Heze 274015, PR China
Received February 10, 2014
Abstract—A graphene-modiﬁ ed glassy carbon electrode was obtained via drop-casting method and applied to the
simultaneous detection of epinephrine, uric acid, and ascorbic acid by cyclic voltammetry in a phosphate buffer
solution (pH 3.0). The oxidation potentials of epinephrine, uric acid, and ascorbic acid were 0.484, 0.650, and
0.184 V at the graphene-modiﬁ ed glassy carbon electrode, respectively. The peak separation between epinephrine
Pand uric acid, epinephrine and ascorbic acid, and uric acid and ascorbic acid was about 166, 300, and 466 mV,
respectively. So, this graphene-modiﬁ ed electrode can be used for simultaneous determination of each component
in a mixture.
Epinephrine (EP), a hormone secreted by the medulla
of adrenal glands [1, 2], is one of the most important
catecholamine neurotransmitters in the mammalian
central nervous systems,  and exists in body ﬂ uids
[4, 5]. It can affect the regulation of blood pressure and
the heart rate, lipolysis, immune system, and glycogen
metabolism . Many diseases are related to levels
of the EP concentration, such as Parkinson’s disease.
Medically, it is a drug which has been used as a common
emergency healthcare medicine for emergency
treatment in severe allergic reaction, cardiac arrest and
sepsis . Therefore, quantitative determination of EP
is a signiﬁ cant thing in developing nerve physiology,
diagnosis and controlling medicine [8–10]. Uric acid
(UA) is generated in mammalian systems as an end-
product of purine metabolism. UA commonly exists
in body ﬂ uids and extreme abnormalities of their
concentration levels may lead to several diseases, such
as hyperuricaemia and gout . Similarly, ascorbic
acid (AA), a vital vitamin in human, can take part in
several biological reactions. Humans require it as part
of their nutrition and it has been used for the prevention
and treatment of the common cold, mental illness,
infertility, cancer and AIDS . These three coexisting
substances are all electro-active. So it is possible to
develop electrochemical analysis for the determination
of them. But they have similar oxidation potentials at
most electrodes which results in rather poor selectivity.
So the ability to selectively detect EP, UA, and AA has
been a matter of great interest to bioelectrochemists,
electroanalytical chemists and neuroscientists. Up
to now, there are a few reports in the literature about
the simultaneous determination of EP, UA, and AA.
which used different electrochemical methods and
electrodes for their simultaneous determination such as,
poly(caffeic acid)/GCE (glassy carbon electrode) ,
o-cresolsulfonephthalein)  and polydopamine-
nanogold composites modiﬁ ed electrode . To the
best of our knowledge, the graphene-modiﬁ ed glassy
carbon electrode is not exploited for simultaneous
determination of EP, UA, and AA.
Graphene is a new ultra-thin material that it was
experimentally isolated in 2004 . It has attracted