ISSN 0010-5082, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, 2018, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 301–308.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2018.
Original Russian Text
V.A. Babuk, N.L. Budnyi, A.N. Ivonenko, A.A. Nizyaev.
Simulation of Characteristics of Condensed Products
in a Combustion Chamber
V. A. Babuk
A. N. Ivonenko
, and A. A. Nizyaev
Published in Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 55–63, May–June, 2018.
Original article submitted September 7, 2017; revision submitted November 1, 2017.
Abstract: The principles of computational determination of the characteristics of both coarse
and ﬁne fractions of condensed combustion products formed at the propellant surface and evolving
as part of the multiphase ﬂow in the combustion chamber. The characteristics of condensed
products at the propellant surface are determined by modeling the processes involved in their
formation using a decision-making system based on an expert system approach. An evolution model
for non-one-dimensional ﬂow with the mutual inﬂuence of the characteristics of condensed and
gaseous combustion products is developed to determine the characteristics of condensed products
in the multiphase ﬂow of combustion products. The developed tools allow the characteristics of
condensed products to be determined depending on the propellant composition, characteristics of
the propellant grain, and combustion chamber parameters. Parametric analysis of the developed
models was performed for combustion chamber conditions.
Keywords: condensed products, agglomeration, combustion, multiphase ﬂow, simulation.
One consequence of the use of metal fuel (alu-
minum) in composite solid propellants is the formation
of condensed combustion products (CCPs) at the sur-
face of the burning propellant, which are then trans-
formed into combustion condensed products. Usually,
CCPs are characterized by the presence of two frac-
tions of particles diﬀering in size and properties—ﬁne
alumina (FA) and agglomerates. The FA fraction con-
sists of Al
particles with sizes of ≈0.1–10.0 μm. The
agglomerates are coarse particle consisting of Al and
, having a complex structure, and far exceeding
in size the initial metal fuel particles.
The importance of the study of the formation and
evolution of CCPs is due to the signiﬁcant inﬂuence
of condensed products on engine operation. Note that
the particle size of these products, the mass fraction
of agglomerates and FA, and the chemical composition
and structure of agglomerate are of signiﬁcance.
Ustinov Voenmekh Baltic State Technical University,
St. Petersburg, 198005 Russia; email@example.com.
The importance of the problems related to the pres-
ence of CCPs has motivated numerous simulation stud-
ies of multiphase ﬂows taking into account the combus-
tion of Al particles [1–7]. A signiﬁcant number of papers
are devoted to the numerical modeling of the agglom-
eration process and the determination of the character-
istics of agglomerates at the propellant surface (see re-
view ). At the same time, the papers dealing with the
simulation of FA formation are few in number. Some
aspects of this process were considered in [9–11].
We have developed a number of models which can
be used to solve the problem of determining the char-
acteristics of CCPs at the propellant surface and in the
ﬂow of combustion products. These include a math-
ematical model of agglomeration , a model of the
evolution of agglomerates , and a model for the evo-
lution of FA  in the multiphase ﬂow of combustion
products. In addition, a system for making decisions
about the properties of CCPs at the propellant surface
is developed based on an expert system approach .
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