Res. Chem. Intermed.
, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 871–885 (2006)
Also available online - www.brill.nl/rci
Silver nanoclusters doped in X and mordenite zeolites
as heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition
of carbamate pesticides in solution
SOFIAN M. KANAN
, MARSHA C. KANAN
and HOWARD H. PATTERSON
Department of Chemistry, American University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 26666,
Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Deparment of Chemistry, University of Maine, 5706 Aubert Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Received 6 July 2006; accepted 14 August 2006
Abstract—Ag(I) nanoclusters doped in X and mordenite zeolites were prepared and analyzed using
spectroscopy. Both experimental and theoretical studies of the prepared compounds show the presence
of silver nanoclusters with various sizes and environments. The presence of Ag(I) nanoclusters
doped in X and mordenite zeolites with high silver loadings enhanced the photodecomposition rate of
carbofuran 215- and 184-fold, respectively, while the photodecomposition of carbaryl in the presence
of these catalysts show room temperature rate constants that are 182- and 168-times faster than the
photodecomposition of carbaryl in the absence of the silver-doped zeolite catalysts. The reaction rates
were found to be dependent on the amount of silver loaded into the zeolite.
Keywords: Zeolites; carbofuran; carbaryl; silver nanoclusters; luminescence; photodecomposition.
Zeolites are aluminosilicates with well-deﬁned pore and channel structures. These
materials are widely used in industry as ion exchangers, molecular sieves, sorbants
and as catalysts in the petroleum industry . The structural stability of zeolites and
their thermal stability have been investigated extensively [2–4]. They possess high
selectivity patterns for a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations [5–8]. X-ray
diffraction studies have shown that zeolites are giant macromolecules formed by
tetrahedrons joined by shared oxygens, and the structures of many
synthetic and naturally occurring zeolites are now known and well documented .
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