Signaling Pathways Underlying Bone Metastasis: Hypoxia Signaling in Bone Metastasis and Beyond

Signaling Pathways Underlying Bone Metastasis: Hypoxia Signaling in Bone Metastasis and Beyond Purpose of Review This review provides an overview of the mechanisms induced by hypoxia that take place within primary tumors and within the bone microenvironment, and that promote bone metastasis. Recent Findings In primary tumors, hypoxia stimulates metastasis by promoting vascularization, epithelial-mesenchymal tran- sition, immunosuppression, and by inducing pre-metastatic lesions in distant tissues. In bones, local hypoxia maintains bone homeostasis and has been recently shown to promote tumor colonization, to reactivate dormant tumor cells, and strikingly, to promote systemic cancer growth and dissemination beyond the skeleton. Summary Hypoxia is recognized as a critical component of the tumor microenvironment that strongly affects tumor growth and metastasis. However, our knowledge of the mechanisms induced locally by hypoxia in the skeleton that promotes tumor dissemination in bones and beyond is only emerging. Recent studies identified LIFR and CXCL12 as important factors down- stream of hypoxia signaling in the bone, but other molecules and mechanisms will be likely discovered in the future. . . . . . Keywords Bone metastasis Hypoxia HIF Tumor microenvironment CXCL12 LIFR Introduction step of the dissemination process, cancer cells interact closely with their microenvironment. The tumor stroma is composed of Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Molecular Biology Reports Springer Journals

Signaling Pathways Underlying Bone Metastasis: Hypoxia Signaling in Bone Metastasis and Beyond

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Biomedicine; Molecular Medicine; Human Genetics
eISSN
2198-6428
D.O.I.
10.1007/s40610-018-0090-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of Review This review provides an overview of the mechanisms induced by hypoxia that take place within primary tumors and within the bone microenvironment, and that promote bone metastasis. Recent Findings In primary tumors, hypoxia stimulates metastasis by promoting vascularization, epithelial-mesenchymal tran- sition, immunosuppression, and by inducing pre-metastatic lesions in distant tissues. In bones, local hypoxia maintains bone homeostasis and has been recently shown to promote tumor colonization, to reactivate dormant tumor cells, and strikingly, to promote systemic cancer growth and dissemination beyond the skeleton. Summary Hypoxia is recognized as a critical component of the tumor microenvironment that strongly affects tumor growth and metastasis. However, our knowledge of the mechanisms induced locally by hypoxia in the skeleton that promotes tumor dissemination in bones and beyond is only emerging. Recent studies identified LIFR and CXCL12 as important factors down- stream of hypoxia signaling in the bone, but other molecules and mechanisms will be likely discovered in the future. . . . . . Keywords Bone metastasis Hypoxia HIF Tumor microenvironment CXCL12 LIFR Introduction step of the dissemination process, cancer cells interact closely with their microenvironment. The tumor stroma is composed of Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths.

Journal

Current Molecular Biology ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 24, 2018

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