It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2016
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud