Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 23−26.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
S.A. Efremov, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 25−28.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Shungite Rock Processing Technology
S. A. Efremov
Center of Physicochemical Methods of Analysis, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Received December 10, 2009
Abstract—The technological principles of shungite rock beneficiation were developed. The suitability of shungite
concentrate for diversified technological applications was tested. A flowsheet for shungite rock processing was
Many economic activities, e.g., surface mining of
mineral deposits, involve formation of waste whose
storage results in land taking out of the nature complex and
loss of fertility, the basic soil property, thereby reducing
the biodiversity, leading to air quality degradation, etc.
In this context, providing the environmental safety and
efﬁ cient use of natural resources implies the development
of processing technology for these rocks.
Our study was concerned with shungite rocks from
“Bol’shevik” deposit in East-Kazakhstan oblast. Table 1
presents the chemical composition of the averaged sample.
The carbon content of shungite rocks is insigniﬁ cant
(19.1%), which necessitates their beneﬁ ciation so that
carbon materials thereof (sorbents, ﬁ llers) be suitable for
diversiﬁ ed industrial applications.
A technology was developed for beneﬁ ciation of
shungite rocks on a column ﬂ otation machine (see the
schematic diagram in Fig. 1).
For pulp preparation, the shungite rock was crushed
in a jaw crusher and subsequently, for 45 min, in a ball
mill. Given below are the results of fractional analysis
of the crushed shungite rock :
The beneficiation was optimized with respect to
the following parameters: reagent regime and pulp
temperature, pH, and density.
In the shungite rock beneﬁ ciation experiments we
tested frothing agents available from “Clariant, ” as well
as Russian ﬂ otation reagents . Table 2 shows that,
irrespective of whether we used or did not use a regulator
(liquid glass), the most efﬁ cient ﬂ oatation was achieved
with kerosene as collector and Flotol B as frothing agent:
ﬂ otation concentrate in a yield of 40.2–40.6% with the
carbon content of ca. 44.0% at 93.4–93.8% recovery.
The yield of the ﬂ otation concentrate in relation to
the pulp temperature was examined within the 20–50°C
range. We found that, at 25–35°C, the froth stability
increases, better air dispersion in the pulp is achieved
in the ﬂ otation machine, and the yield of the ﬂ otation
concentrate, shungite carbon, increases (reaches
a maximum at 30oC) (Fig. 2).
The experiments run at different pH of the pulp
showed that this parameter does not signiﬁ cantly affect
the ﬂ otation rate and quality.
Also, we tested the suitability of shungite concentrate
as carbon material for various processes, in particular,
for preparation of a sorbent  and a ﬁ ller for rubber
For sorbent preparation the concentrate was mixed
with an aqueous sugar solution into a thick dough
consistency. The resulting mixture was passed through
a screw with the hole diameter of 0.3 cm. The 2–5-mm
granules were dried in ambient air and subsequently, for