Background: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic, chronic, degenerative osteoarthropathy. KBD is usually diagnosed by using X-ray image and clinical symptoms, lacking of serological biomarkers. The serum level of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP can specifically reflect the damage of the cartilage. So, in this study, the serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP were detected in order to determine whether they can be used as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of KBD. Method: Using a status survey, the survey sites were selected in the KBD historical endemic areas and non-endemic areas in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. All local residents have undergone clinical examination, X-ray examination of the hands and knees, and questionnaire survey. A total of 554 people were surveyed, and 184 residents who are eligible for inclusion criteria were selected as our subjects. Fifty-six cases were diagnosed as KBD and 63 individuals were included as internal control and 65 subjects were included as external control. And blood samples of surveyed subjects were collected, and the serum was separated to detect the levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age and sex among the three groups. The Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that the serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP were significantly different among the three groups. Multiple comparisons using Dunnett’s T3 test revealed that serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP were significantly lower in KBD patients than in internal and external control. However, there was no significant difference between the internal and external control. Conclusions: The results preliminarily indicated that the levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in serum could reflect the abnormal synthesis of type II collagen in KBD patients and suggested that these indicators might be used as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of KBD. Keywords: Kashin-Beck disease, Type II collagen, PIICP, PIIANP, PIIBNP, Biomarkers Background . KBD has a high prevalence in the broad diagonal belt Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic, chronic, and de- from northern-east to southern-west in China. And the formative osteoarthropathy that mainly occurs in children disease can also be found in Siberia and a few areas in aged 5–15 years old , anditwas namedsuchbythe North Korea. Most of the endemic areas are located in the international medical community . The disease is known cold and arid regions of warm and humid areas . for the formation of multi-joint hyperplasia bone changes Although KBD has been studied over 160 years, the etiology is still unclear. There are three main etiological hy- potheses, namely biogeochemical theory (mainly selenium * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Wei Lian and Hui Liu contributed equally to this work. deficiency), fusarium toxin (mainly T-2 toxin) poisoning Institute for Kashin-Beck Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for theory of food, and drinking water organism poisoning Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China theory. Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Harbin 23618504, China Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Lian et al. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (2018) 13:128 Page 2 of 7 Articular cartilage has an important role in cushioning ② KBD monitoring data is complete; ③ X-ray positive the joints of skeleton, and it is mainly composed of type II detection rate of children < 3%; and ④ the population of collagen and various proteoglycans including aggrecan. residents over age 40 is more than 100 people. Changes in the quality and quantity of type II collagen both Selection criteria of non-KBD villages are the follow- are the direct cause of loss of their normal biomechanical ing: ① there is no history of being a KBD endemic area; properties , and these changes are closely related to KBD ② the population of residents over age 40 is more than . Type II collagen is synthesized by chondrocytes. The 100 people; and ③ eating habits and economic level of immature protein contains three extra domains: a signal villagers are similar to KBD villages. peptide and N-terminal and C-terminal propeptide According to our selection criteria, the survey sites were domains when propeptide regions upon cleavage allow ma- selected in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. They are ture collagen molecules to be incorporated into the extra- Dongxia and Zhoujia villages (Songyuan City of Jilin cellular matrix . As C-terminal propeptide (PIICP) are Province), Hanxia and Youhao villages (Jiaohe City of Jilin released only during synthesis of the new molecules, its Province), and Yushu cha and Puban shi villages (Tonghua production is known to reflect the rate of type II collagen City of Jilin Province) in KBD endemic areas and Sanjing synthesis and the cartilage metabolism [8–10]. IIA and IIB Village (Songyuan City of Jilin Province), Fuqiang Village procollagen N-terminal propeptide (PIIANP, PIIBNP) is the (Jiaohe City of Jilin Province), and Heigang Village N-terminal non-helical structure cleaved when type II col- (Qiqihaer City of Heilongjiang Province) in non-KBD areas. lagen precursor forms type II collagen, which also reflects the anabolic status of articular cartilage [11, 12]. Now, with Selection of study subject the rapid development of modern molecular biology tech- Clinical examination, radiologic examinations, and ques- nology, the study of products in the process of type II colla- tionnaire survey were performed for the adults over gen synthesis has also advanced. 40 years of age who were living in the abovementioned The diagnosis of KBD usually adopts the X-ray examin- villages. After the examinations and questionnaire sur- ation (mainly hand images); the deformation of the inter- vey, the eligible individuals were selected. The inclusion phalangeal joint is the basic characteristic of KBD. The criteria of KBD patients (KBD was diagnosed in accord- different degrees of shortening of the fingers, limbs, and ance with the “Chinese Diagnosis of Kashin-Beck Dis- body are the main gist in diagnosing and classifying the ease” standard (WS/T 207-2010) for the diagnosis of severity of Kashin-Beck disease . And when the dis- Kashin-Beck disease) are the following: (1) the subject ease could be diagnosed, the cartilage was already dam- lived in KBD endemic area in childhood and adolescence aged badly and clinical signs and symptoms appear. The for more than 6 months; (2) there are multiple, symmet- currently available treatments for KBD are limited to non- ric finger joint thickening or short digit (toe) or other specific interventions, pharmacologic management of the symptoms of KBD in subjects; and (3) excluding other symptoms, and surgical treatment for severe adult KBD bone and joint diseases. The inclusion criteria of the [14–16]. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and control are the following: ① adults without KBD, OA, analgesics are heavily used to alleviate patients’ pain and other bone or joint diseases, such as joint inflamma- because these agents are inexpensive. However, these tion, metabolic bone diseases, neoplasia, osteoporosis, or agents are accompanied by a high risk of adverse events osteomalacia; ② no history of traumatic knee disease . Therefore, the effective early diagnosis of KBD before and liver and/or kidney diseases; ③ not overweight, the cartilage was damaged badly is an important step BMI ≤ 30; and ④ not receiving hormones or any other toward improving the management of this disease. medication that affects bone metabolism. As mentioned above, measuring the level of some mole- cules related to type II collagen synthesis in the serum could reflect the degree of cartilage metabolism, and it Detection equipment and methods might be helpful to understand the pathogenesis of KBD. Detection equipment Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify changes in The detection equipment used for a high-frequency the serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in KBD portable digital medical diagnostic X-ray image DR sys- patients and explore the possibility of these indicators as tem were the following: (1) X-ray generator, (2) flat panel diagnostic biomarkers of KBD. detectors, and (3) portable video workstation. The com- puter model is a Lenovo computer Y450. Methods The selection of investigation sites Selection criteria of investigate villages Detection method Selection principle of KBD endemic villages are the fol- The radiologic examination sites are the metacarpopha- lowing: ① there is history of being a KBD endemic area; langeal joint and knee joint. Lian et al. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (2018) 13:128 Page 3 of 7 Quality control the three groups (X = 1.329, P = 0.514) (the detail was Professionals firstly read the images based on the Chinese seen in Table 1). Diagnosis of Kashin-Beck Disease. In order to ensure the quality of data, all abnormal X-ray images were examined Correlations between serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and again by three experts. The experts provide their own PIIBNP and age evaluations to our team, and we finalized the diagnoses of Scatter diagrams were used to show the correlation the patients according to the views of these experts. between the levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in serum of the three groups and their age (Fig. 1). As shown in Fig. 1, there was no significant correlation Serum samples and laboratory measures between age and the levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and Five-milliliter samples of peripheral venous blood of the PIIBNP in serum. upper arm were collected in the morning from each pa- In order to verify the accuracy of scatter diagrams, tient and control participant. The blood samples were left Spearman rank correlation was used to further at room temperature for 1 h and then were centrifuged at analyze the correlation between the levels of PIICP, 3000 rpm/min for 20 min to separate the serum. The PIIANP, and PIIBNP in serum of the three groups serum was dispensed into 50 μl aliquots into micro centri- and their age. The results from Spearman rank correl- fuge tubes and then was stored at − 80 °C until assay. ation analysis showed that rank correlation coefficient Assays were carried out to determine serum levels of (r ) between the levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP by a sandwich enzyme-linked and age was − 0.073 (P = 0.323), − 0.097 (P = 0.189), immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing two monoclonal and − 0.052 (P = 0.486), respectively. And this result antibodies directed against separate antigens of human indicated that there was no linear correlation between serum PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP. The kits for assay were age and the level of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in provided by Shanghai Meilian and Beijing Biotopped serum. Biological Technology Co. Ltd. These sandwich ELISAs were carried out according to the supplier’s protocols, and Comparison between serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and optical densities were determined using an automated PIIBNP and sex reader (BioTek, USA). Intra- and inter-assay CVs were 9 The Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis H and 15% for all the biomarkers, respectively. test were used to analyze the difference between serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP and sex. Statistical analysis There were no statistically significant differences in Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS soft- serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP of differ- ware, version 23.0. Age were expressed as mean ± stand- ent genders within the group (P > 0.05). However, ard deviation (SD). The normality test and the there were statistical difference in serum levels of homogeneity test were performed. The two groups were PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP among different groups in compared using the t test (equal variance) or the t′ test both male and female (H = 9.83, P =0.007; H = 14.74, (unequal variance) or the Wilcoxon rank sum test (non-- P = 0.001; H =9.71, P = 0.008; H = 12.87, P = 0.002; H normal distribution). Multiple sets of comparisons use = 11.39, P = 0.003; H = 14.00, P =0.001) (Table 2). Be- variance analysis or Kruskal-Wallis H test (non-normal sides, all these three indicators in the KBD group distribution), and the correlation between two factors were obviously lower than those in the internal and uses Pearson or Spearman-related analysis. Differences external control groups. were considered significant at P values of less than 0.05. Comparison of the three biomarkers in serum in each Results group Basic characteristics of the subjects The medians of serum PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP levels A total of 554 adults completed clinical examination, in the KBD group were 32.43, 65.61, and 17.06 ng/ml, radiologic examination, and questionnaire survey. In respectively; the medians of serum PIICP, PIIANP, and matching the age and gender, 184 subjects were selected. PIIBNP levels in the internal control were 51.86, 93.96, Fifty-six cases were diagnosed as KBD (28 males and 28 females) and 63 individuals were included as internal Table 1 Basic characteristics of the subjects control (28 males and 35 females) and 65 subjects were KBD Internal control External control included as external control (27 males and 38 females). N 56 63 65 There were no statistically significant differences in age Male/female 28/28 28/35 27/38 among the three groups (F = 1.565, P = 0.221). There Age 63.20 ± 6.18 61.48 ± 6.09 61.54 ± 5.63 were no statistically significant differences in sex among Lian et al. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (2018) 13:128 Page 4 of 7 Fig. 1 Correlations between the levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in serum and age. a The correlations between serum levels of PIICP and age. b The correlations between serum levels of PIIANP and age. c The correlations between serum levels of PIIBNP and age and 28.70 ng/ml, respectively; and the medians of serum Therefore, the research on biomarker of OA is helpful PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP levels in the external control for the research of KBD. were 67.04, 80.40, and 30.81 ng/ml, respectively. The PIICP is the product of type II collagen synthesis; type serum PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP levels were signifi- II collagen is specifically expressed in cartilage tissues, cantly different among the three groups (H = 23.198, so PIICP can specifically reflect cartilage metabolism P < 0.001; H = 23.937, P < 0.001; H = 23.999, P < 0.001). and indicate the occurrence of OA. Sugiyama et al. con- Multiple comparisons using Dunnett’s T3 test revealed ducted a 4-year follow-up of 172 early OA women with that serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in the knee pain, and the data of 110 patients with successful KBD group were clearly lower than those in the internal follow-up showed that there was a mild positive correl- and external control groups (P < 0.05) (Figs. 2, 3, and 4). ation between body mass index and baseline PIICP level. However, there was no significant difference between At the same time, the degree of joint space stenosis was the internal control group and the external control positively correlated with baseline PIICP level. There- group (P > 0.05). fore, the level of PIICP in synovial fluid can predict the imaging progress of early knee OA . Kobayashi et al. Discussion  detected the level of PIICP in synovial fluid of OA KBD is an endemic, chronic, degenerative osteoar- patients and found that the level of PIICP increased in thropathy, which is characterized primarily by early and middle stages of OA and decreased in the late epiphyseal cartilage and articular cartilage deep chon- stage of OA. The reason may be due to the damage of drocyte necrosis and secondary hyperplasia and repair articular cartilage in the early stage of OA is not serious, changes to pathological features, leading to but the compensatory increase of chondrocytes and osteochondral dysplasia, secondary degenerative joint enhancement of synthetic function are very obvious, so disease . So, the early stage of KBD is manifested the level of PIICP elevates. In the late stage, the cartilage as osteochondrosis, and then, these changes develop matrix is severely damaged, both the chondrocytes and continuously, ultimately progresses to OA . the synthesis ability decreased, therefore the level of Table 2 Relationship between the serum levels of the three biomarkers and sex Biomarker Sex KBD Internal control External control HP (ng/ml) Median P25,P75 Median P25,P75 Median P25,P75 PIICP Male 33.38 20.75,46.63 53.03 39.94,75.02 61.12 22.53,97.48 9.83 0.007 Female 30.90 9.08,65.02 51.77 30.69,103.00 82.75 23.64,134.95 14.74 0.001 PIIANP Male 65.61 56.79,91.42 98.85 74.09,152.67 80 57.12,160 9.71 0.008 Female 65.37 48.60,89.36 92.98 67.57,151.66 80.40 67.66,114.52 12.87 0.002 PIIBNP Male 17.15 11.29,24.19 30.63 21.89,40.54 26.82 11.99,47.41 11.39 0.003 Female 11.61 4.79,32.39 25.90 19.43,47.78 41.24 12.06,54.89 14.00 0.001 Lian et al. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (2018) 13:128 Page 5 of 7 Fig. 2 Serum level of PIICP in each group. PIICP levels in the KBD Fig. 4 Serum level of PIIBNP in each group. PIIBNP levels in the KBD group were clearly lower than those in the internal and external group were clearly lower than those in the internal and external control groups (P < 0.05) control groups (P < 0.05) PIICP also decreased. In this study, we found that the and is expressed by chondroprogenitor cells, whereas serum levels of PIICP in KBD patients were significantly type IIB (PIIBNP) is devoid of exon 2 and is expressed lower than those in internal and external control groups. in differentiated chondrocytes [21–23]. Although Sharif The possible reason was that KBD mostly occurred in reported that serum PIIANP in knee OA progressors children and adolescents; with the growing of patients was higher than that in OA non-progressors , most and the progress of disease, the cartilage matrix dam- of the previous studies have demonstrated that serum aged more seriously and the synthesis ability decreased PIIANP decreased in knee OA patients compared to apparently. Therefore, serum concentrations of PIICP in controls [25–30]. PIIBNP is believed to be the only adult KBD patients should be lower than those in nor- procollagen expressed during the formation of type II mal subjects. collagen in healthy adult human cartilage . Hayashi Type II collagen is synthesized as procollagen. During et al. found that PIIBNP can inhibit osteoclast survival its maturation, there is a cleavage of C-terminal (PIICP) and bone resorption via signal transduction through the and N-terminal (PIINP) extension propeptides, which αVβ3 integrins . They proposed that PIIBNP may can serve as markers of cartilage synthesis. The play a role in vivo in protecting cartilage from osteoclast N-terminal propeptide exist two variants (IIA/IIB), invasion and also could be a new therapeutic strategy for which arise from the alternative splicing of COL2A1 decreasing bone loss. In this study, we observed that the gene. These two procollagen forms differ from each serum levels of PIIANP and PIIBNP in KBD patients other in the presence of exon 2 and in the distribution were significantly lower than those in the internal and of their expression. Type IIA (PIIANP) contains exon 2 external controls, suggesting a lack of type II collagen synthesis, resulting in deficiency of cartilage repair, fur- ther leading to the rapid development of KBD. Some limitations are present in this study. Because in rural areas, men 40–60 years of age go out to work more, the survey population therefore included a relatively small number of healthy men. In addition, the mean age of patients with KBD is larger than previous studies. Mean- while, we also needed to increase the number of patients to be verified in the follow-up experiment. Conclusions In this study, the serum levels of PIICP, PIIANP, and PIIBNP in the KBD group were significantly lower than those in the internal and external control groups, but Fig. 3 Serum level of PIIANP in each group. PIIANP levels in the KBD there was no significant difference between the internal group were clearly lower than those in the internal and external control group and the external control group. 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Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research – Springer Journals
Published: May 29, 2018
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