Super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a life-threatening condition in which seizures do not respond to third-line anticonvulsant drug therapy. SRSE is associated with high mortality. How often SRSE occurs, what are the risk factors leading to this condition, and what is the effect on clinical outcome of failure to control seizures are poorly defined. Several studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in status epilepticus (SE), confirming that SE may directly cause selective neuronal necrosis due to excitotoxic mechanisms, as described in clinical case reports and experimental models. The aim of our study is to illustrate, in a case of SRSE, MRI signal changes during time and to describe which cerebral structures are early involved in this difficult clinical condition. We investigated with serial MRI study a patient affected by childhood generalized epilepsy who developed SRSE of unknown etiology during adulthood. MRI scans showed brain signal changes according to progressive electro-clinical worsening, particularly an early involvement of striatum/pallidus. An extended literature exists about transient MRI changes in SE, but not enough about SRSE, because of the difficulties in executing serial MRI studies in patients with such risky condition. MRI findings in SRSE must be investigated with particular care in order to detect early changes in basal ganglia that could suggest severe prognosis.
Neurological Sciences – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 8, 2017
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