Sequence heterogeneity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef in patients presenting with rapid progression and delayed progression to AIDS

Sequence heterogeneity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef in patients presenting with... Genetic heterogeneity in the nef genes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected rapid progressors (RPs) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) was analyzed to identify various amino acid substitutions responsible for the discernible difference in disease progression. It was found that the majority of the strains characterized belonged to subtype C, followed by several BC recombinants and subtype A1. Complete nef subtype C sequences from 33 RPs and seven LTNPs were compared, and it was observed that, in the majority of the sequences from both groups, highly conserved functional motifs showed subtle changes. However, drastic changes were observed in two isolates from LTNPs where the arginine cluster was deleted, while in one of them, additionally, acidic residues were replaced by basic residues (EEEEE → RK(R)KKE). The deletion of the arginine cluster and the mutation of acidic residues to basic residues are predicted to delay disease development by abolishing CD4 downmodulation and causing diminution of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) downregulation, respectively. Nonetheless, this is an exclusive finding in these LTNPs, which necessitates their analysis at the functional level. The synonymous-to-nonsynonymous substitution ratio was greater than one in both of the groups, suggesting amino acid sequence conservation and functional robustness. Interpatient nucleotide distance within the group and between the two groups showed very little variation, confirming genetic relatedness among isolates. Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Sequence heterogeneity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef in patients presenting with rapid progression and delayed progression to AIDS

Loading next page...
Springer Vienna
Copyright © 2014 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Biomedicine; Virology; Medical Microbiology; Infectious Diseases
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


  • Structure-function relationships in HIV-1 Nef
    Geyer, M; Fackler, OT; Peterlin, BM
  • Identification of the nef -associated kinase as p21-activated kinase 2
    Renkema, GH; Manninen, A; Manninnen, A; Mann, DA; Harris, M; Saksela, K
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize structurally diverse, clade-specific and cross-reactive peptides in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag through HLA-B53
    Dorrell, L; Willcox, BE; Jones, EY; Gillespie, GG; Njai, H; Sabally, S; Jaye, A; DeGleria, K; Rostron, T; Lepin, AE; McMichael; Whittle, H; Rowland-Jones, S
  • The SH3-binding domain binding surface and an acidic motif in HIV-1 Nef regulate trafficking of class-I MHC complexes
    Greenberg, ME; Iafrate, AJ; Skowronski, J

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial