The effect of copper ions in seawater (0.02 mg/l) on the early stages of development of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius was studied. Copper exposure from fertilization or the prism stage retarded development and growth and led to abnormalities in the morphology of the embryos and larvae. However, if development to the pluteus stage proceeded in clean seawater, an increased copper concentration did not inhibit the growth of larvae. If sea urchin embryos at fertilization and the prism stage were maintained for 1–2 days in seawater containing 0.02 mg Cu/l and then transferred to clean seawater, the adverse consequences of this exposure remained present after 48 h.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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