ISSN 1070-4280, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 7, pp. 1201–1206. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text © V.I. Zhukov, G.V. Val’kovich, B.N. Skorik, Yu.M. Petrov, G.P. Belov, 2007, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2007,
Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 1–7.
Selective Dimerization of Ethylene to But-1-ene under
the Conditions of Industrial Process.
II. Selection of a Solvent for the Process of Ethylene
to But-1-ene Dimerization
V. I. Zhukov
, G. V. Val’kovich
, B. N. Skorik
, Yu. M. Petrov
and G. P. Belov
Lukoil-Neftekhim Group, Stavrolen Co., Budenovsk, Russia
Institute of Probems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia
Received February 5, 2007
Abstract—A comparative economical analysis of reasons for application the solvents of various type in the process
of ethylene to but-1-ene dimerization and of technological schemes of rectification of the products of ethylene
dimerization with use of different solvents. The optimal solvent for the currently working industrial process of eth-
ylene to but-1-ene dimerization is hexane fraction forming in the process of ethylene dimerization.
TECHNOLOGY OF ORGANIC
AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCES
The highly selective process of manufacturing but-
1-ene by catalytic dimerization of ethylene has been
first developed in the Institute of Problems of Chemi-
cal Physics RAS and in cooperation with joint-stock
companies Stavrolen and Kazanorgsynthes realized in
industry [1–3]. In  we performed analysis of mass
and heat balances of the reaction node for the process
of ethylene dimerization under industrial conditions.
The process of ethylene dimerization is performed
with homogenous catalyst Ti(OR)
tor in the medium of hydrocarbon solvent. As the sol-
vent can be used individual or mixed hydrocarbons,
including the products of dimerization.
The solvent in the process of dimerization bears
–as a reaction medium for the process,
–solving ethylene and dimerization products,
–maintaining required temperature regime,
–promoting heat withdraw.
In this connection, the solvent should obey the fol-
–it should be chemically inert to the catalyst com-
ponents, monomer and dimerization products,
–should contain minimum admixtures reacting
with the catalyst components and the catalyst
–should have certain composition on hydrocarbons
providing stable proceeding of the process in
–should provide simple by technology method of
separation of the dimerization products,
–should be accessible, accepted in the industrial
scale and advantageous economically.
Taking into account these requirements, investiga-
tions for evaluation of various solvents and selecting
the perfect one have been conducted.
Among the solvents for the ethylene to but-1-ene
dimerization could be used the following solvents:
–individual paraffin hydrocarbons (hexane, hep-
tane and others and their mixtures),
–naphthene solvents (cyclohexane),
–aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene and others),
–unsaturated hydrocarbons (but-1-ene, hexenes),
–halohydrocarbons (chloroethane, bromoethane),
–ethers (diethyl, diisopentyl),
–industrial hydrocarbon fractions C6 or C7 (Nefras
“A”, Nefras “C”, BR-1, BR-2 and others).
In  was reported that the solvent nature affects