Sedative options for fish research: a brief review with new data on sedation of warm-, cool-, and coldwater fishes and recommendations for the drug approval process

Sedative options for fish research: a brief review with new data on sedation of warm-, cool-, and... The absence of a suitable sedative allowing treated fish to be released immediately after recovery constrains research and poses a risk to fish and those handling them. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s reliance on multi-taxon datasets represents a major hurdle in the approval process. Experiments were conducted with twelve freshwater taxa to assess time to induction and recovery of fish sedated with different doses of AQUI-S 20E (10 % eugenol), Benzoak (20 % benzocaine), or MS-222 (99.5 % tricaine methanesulfonate) administered under various conditions. A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether sedative dose, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and fish length or weight contributed to variation in induction and recovery times. A subsequent experiment with eugenol was conducted to further assess time to sedation as a function of water temperature and sedative dose. Generally, higher doses and warmer temperatures were associated with faster inductions. Warmer temperatures were also associated with more rapid recoveries, however, high doses tended to delay recovery. Positive relationships linking estimated respiration rates and times to induction and recovery suggest the effects of temperature and body size on sedation timing may be a function of oxygen consumption. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the response of fish to chemical sedatives is primarily a function of sedative dose and water temperature, and, to a lesser extent, fish size and dissolved oxygen, not taxonomic classification. Accordingly, we suggest that as much information could be gained from a single taxon evaluated under different conditions as experiments involving multiple fishes. We recommend those establishing data requirements for fish drug approvals review these findings and consider alternative experimental designs as means of addressing regulatory requirements more efficiently and with greater rigor. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries Springer Journals

Sedative options for fish research: a brief review with new data on sedation of warm-, cool-, and coldwater fishes and recommendations for the drug approval process

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/sedative-options-for-fish-research-a-brief-review-with-new-data-on-pT50Ox2TMv
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by Springer International Publishing Switzerland
Subject
Life Sciences; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Zoology
ISSN
0960-3166
eISSN
1573-5184
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11160-014-9374-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The absence of a suitable sedative allowing treated fish to be released immediately after recovery constrains research and poses a risk to fish and those handling them. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s reliance on multi-taxon datasets represents a major hurdle in the approval process. Experiments were conducted with twelve freshwater taxa to assess time to induction and recovery of fish sedated with different doses of AQUI-S 20E (10 % eugenol), Benzoak (20 % benzocaine), or MS-222 (99.5 % tricaine methanesulfonate) administered under various conditions. A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether sedative dose, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and fish length or weight contributed to variation in induction and recovery times. A subsequent experiment with eugenol was conducted to further assess time to sedation as a function of water temperature and sedative dose. Generally, higher doses and warmer temperatures were associated with faster inductions. Warmer temperatures were also associated with more rapid recoveries, however, high doses tended to delay recovery. Positive relationships linking estimated respiration rates and times to induction and recovery suggest the effects of temperature and body size on sedation timing may be a function of oxygen consumption. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the response of fish to chemical sedatives is primarily a function of sedative dose and water temperature, and, to a lesser extent, fish size and dissolved oxygen, not taxonomic classification. Accordingly, we suggest that as much information could be gained from a single taxon evaluated under different conditions as experiments involving multiple fishes. We recommend those establishing data requirements for fish drug approvals review these findings and consider alternative experimental designs as means of addressing regulatory requirements more efficiently and with greater rigor.

Journal

Reviews in Fish Biology and FisheriesSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 17, 2014

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve Freelancer

DeepDyve Pro

Price
FREE
$49/month

$360/year
Save searches from Google Scholar, PubMed
Create lists to organize your research
Export lists, citations
Access to DeepDyve database
Abstract access only
Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles
Print
20 pages/month
PDF Discount
20% off