Physical Oceanography, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2005
SEASONAL VARIATIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF CLIMATIC CURRENTS
WITH DEPTH ON THE BASIS OF ASSIMILATION OF NEW CLIMATIC DATA
ON TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY IN A MODEL OF THE BLACK SEA
S. G. Demyshev, V. V. Knysh, and N. V. Inyushina
The seasonal climatic circulation of the sea reconstructed on the basis of assimilation of new ar-
rays of many-year average hydrological data in a model is analyzed. Five layers are discovered
in the structure of climatic currents in the sea in depth: the surface Ekman layer
with small vertical gradients of the kinetic energy
a layer with relatively high verti-
cal gradients of the kinetic energy
a layer with gradual decrease in the kinetic en-
ergy and intensification (from
of the east cyclonic gyre and Batumi anticyclonic ed-
and an abyssal layer characterized by an almost barotropic velocity (&
m). The specific features of the seasonal evolution of currents at these depths are investig-
ated. It is shown that the key role in the formation of deep-water circulation of the sea is played
by the south east flow, east cyclonic gyre, and Batumi anticyclonic eddy.
At present, there are three versions of climatic arrays of temperature (T
) and salinity (S
) [1–3] used for
the reconstruction of the seasonal variability of currents in the Black Sea on the basis of complete nonlinear cir-
culation models [4–7]. Thus, the adaptation method and the monthly climatic arrays of T
in [1, 2], respectively, are used for the reconstruction of currents in [4, 5]. Note that these arrays have serious
disadvantages mainly connected with the poor data from the abyssal layers and the regions of the sea located
near the coasts of Turkey.
For this reason, a special procedure of assimilation of hydrological data in the model is proposed in  for
the reconstruction of the continuous annual variations of climatic currents in the sea.
A new version of the climatic thermohaline data array for the Black Sea (see ) was created on the basis
of a more complete database taking into account the in-situ results accumulated for the last 20 years in all parts
of the sea including the economic zone of Turkey. In , the thermohaline and dynamic characteristics of the
sea reconstructed by the method proposed in  on the basis of the old  and new  climatic distributions of
temperature and salinity are compared and the characteristic features of long-term variations of the thermohaline
and dynamic characteristics of the sea and the seasonal behavior of deep-water climatic circulation are revealed.
However, both in [4–7] and in the earlier works [8, 9], where the climatic currents in the sea are calculated by the
dynamic method and according to the quasigeostrophic model, respectively, the analysis of changes in current
velocities with depth for various seasons of the year is absent.
In the present work, we continue our investigations of the seasonal circulation of the sea reconstructed by
the assimilation of new arrays of many-year average hydrological data in the model [3, 7]. Our attention is
mainly focused on the analysis of the transformations of currents with depth and the specific features of the an-
nual variability of deep-water climatic circulation.
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
28–45, November–December, 2005. Original article submitted Septem-
ber 15, 2004; revision submitted October 19, 2004.
346 0928-5105/05/1506–0346 © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.