The formation of phloem was studied for two years in stems of 50 to 60 year old trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in nature. The development of phloem of the current year begins 10 to 20 days before the xylem formation and is completed with the termination of shoot growth in the end of June. Observations over the seasonal activity of cambium producing sieve cells of phloem and duration of their differentiation as compared to the xylem derivatives of cambium have shown that the maxima of formation of phloem and xylem cells could coincide or not coincide by season, while the activities of their differentiation were always in antiphase. The sieve cells of early phloem were separated from those of late phloem by a layer of tannin-containing cells, which are formed simultaneously with the formation of late xylem cells by the cambium. Seasonal dynamics of accumulation of starch grain in structural elements of the phloem is related to the xylem development. The content of metabolites in differentiating and mature phloem elements, in the cambium zone, and in the xylem cells growing in the radial direction depended on cell specificity, stage of their development, and type of forming wood, early or late, which differ in the cell wall parameters and, hence, requirement of assimilates. Significant differences were described between the content of low molecular weigh carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, and phenol compounds using two methods of calculation: per dry weight and per cell.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 21, 2006
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