In the Arctic, a clear temperature trend toward warming has been observed during the last two decades. The warming has led to a reduction in the area and thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover because of increased melting. Melt water is accumulated within the 0- to 30-m surface layer, markedly changing its hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics: this water is warmer and fresher, with lower nutrient concentrations. A stable thermocline at depths of 30–35 m weakens vertical mixing of water and hampers active exchange between nutrient-enriched water lying below the thermocline and nutrient-poor water under ice. This affects the qualitative and quantitative composition of upper-ocean phyto- and zooplankton. The changes in the climate and the ice environment cause marked alterations in the composition and structure of the biological communities of sea ice and under-ice surface water. Comparative analysis of materials collected in the anticyclonic Arctic Gyre at the ice stations Severnyi Polyus-22 (1975– 1981) and SHEBA (1997–1998) shows that over the last two decades the number of species of ice diatoms markedly decreased and the role of freshwater algae increased. The number of nematodes, copepods, amphipods, and turbellarians, which were the dominant groups in perennial ice, also declined sharply. The results suggest that the sea ice-upper ocean ecosystem is changing from typically marine to brackish-water. The main reason for these changes is probably global warming in the Arctic.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 18, 2006
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera