The presence of emerging contaminants (ECs) in different aquatic systems may contribute to hazardous effects on aquatic organisms and subsequently on human health. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-ToF-MS) was used to identify and quantify a series of ECs in Periyar River in Aluva region, Kerala, India. The water samples were pre concentrated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis. The compounds were probed in both positive and negative ionization mode using electro spray ionization (ESI). Method validations were performed for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, and precision (intraday and inter day). The ECs were quantified using standard calibration curve. The identified nine ECs include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, steroids, surfactants, and phthalate. A relatively high concentration was observed in the case of 2-dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1012 ng/l) and low concentration was observed for lignocaine (4.3 ng/l; since this is below LOQ, the value is only approximate). In addition, we have identified another 28 organic compounds using the technique of non-target analysis out of which seven compounds fall in the category of surfactants. Being the first report on ECs in Periyar River, the data is very important as this river is one of the biggest and important rivers of Kerala having several purification units for drinking water in the province.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
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