The ability to predict phenotype from genotype has been an elusive goal for the biological sciences for several decades. Pro- gress decoding genotype–phenotype relationships has been hampered by the challenge of introducing precise genetic changes to specific genomic locations. Here we provide a comparative review of the major techniques that have been historically used to make genetic changes in cells as well as the development of the CRISPR technology which enabled the ability to make marker-free disruptions in endogenous genomic locations. We also discuss how the achievement of truly scarless genome editing has required further adjustments of the original CRISPR method. We conclude by examining recently developed genome editing methods which are not reliant on the induction of a DNA double strand break and discuss the future of both genome engineering and the study of genotype–phenotype relationships. Keywords Genome editing · Genotype-Phenotype relationships · CRISPR Introduction most forms of human-engineered biology will be reliant on laborious and inefficient design processes to move forward The increasing promise of biological technology has fos- (Andrianantoandro et al. 2006). This is consistent across tered considerable enthusiasm that the eradication of genetic all regions of the genome, including protein coding con- disease and ability to improve crops
Current Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2018
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