The reducibility of bulk metal oxides in which the cation is in its highest oxidation state (MgO, Sc2O3, Y2O3, TiO2, m-ZrO2, m-HfO2, CeO2, V2O5, Nb2O5, Ta2O5, WO3, CrO3, Al2O3, β-Ga2O3, SiO2, SnO2 and ZnO) has been studied by standard periodic density functional theory. We have defined and calculated descriptors able to describe and quantify semi-quantitatively the extent of reduction: electronic band gap, oxygen vacancy formation energy and electronic localization. We find that there is no single criterion for characterizing the reducibility. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each method, and we apply them to classify the materials with the PBE+U and B3LYP functionals. Typical irreducible oxides such as MgO show a large band gap, high oxygen vacancy formation energy and electronic localization of the reduction electrons forming and F-center, with a diamagnetic singlet electronic state. Reducible oxides such as TiO2 present small band gaps, small oxygen vacancy formation energy and electron localization of the reduction electrons in the cations, decreasing their oxidation state and presenting open-shell electronic states. Intermediate or ambivalent behavior is found for ZrO2, HfO2, β-Ga2O3, ZnO and SnO2.
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 23, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera